How a cell infected by a virus signals cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill the cell before the virus replicates and spreads. This video is two minutes and 34 seconds in length, and available in Quick Time (11 MB) and Windows Media Player (23 MB). All Infection Disease Animations are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/animations.html.
The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) prepared this online handbook on foodborne pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and parasites) and natural toxins. Chapters are arranged under the following headings: Pathogenic Bacteria, Enterovirulent Escherichia Coli Group, Parasitic Protozoa and Worms, Viruses, Natural Toxins, Other Pathogenic Agents, and Appendices. The intent of each chapter is to provide basic facts regarding these organisms and toxins including their characteristics, habitat or source, associated foods, infective dose, characteristic disease symptoms, complications, recent and/or major outbreaks, and any susceptible populations. The chapters also contain minimal information on the analytical methods used to detect, isolate, and/or identify the pathogens or natural toxins.
This course focuses on the interaction of chemical engineering, biochemistry, and microbiology. Mathematical representations of microbial systems are featured among lecture topics. Kinetics of growth, death, and metabolism are also covered. Continuous fermentation, agitation, mass transfer, and scale-up in fermentation systems, and enzyme technology round out the subject material.
This exercise contains two interrelated modules that introduce students to modern biological techniques in the area of Bioinformatics, which is the application of computer technology to the management of biological information. The need for Bioinformatics has arisen from the recent explosion of publicly available genomic information, such as that resulting from the Human Genome Project.
Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Identify and describe the properties of life
Describe the levels of organization among living things
Recognize and interpret a phylogenetic tree
List examples of different subdisciplines in biology
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Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes, which are bacteria and archaea. Viruses, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. In short; microbiology refers to the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microbiology is a broad term which includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology and other branches. Microbiology is researched actively, and the field is advancing continually. We have probably only studied about one percent of all of the microbe species on Earth. Although microbes were first observed over three hundred years ago, the field of microbiology can be said to be in its infancy relative to older biological disciplines such as zoology and botany.
Welcome to the wonderful world of microbiology! Yay! So. What is microbiology? If we break the word down it translates to “the study of small life,” where the small life refers to microorganisms or microbes. But who are the microbes? And how small are they? Generally microbes can be divided in to two categories: the cellular microbes (or organisms) and the acellular microbes (or agents). In the cellular camp we have the bacteria, the archaea, the fungi, and the protists (a bit of a grab bag composed of algae, protozoa, slime molds, and water molds). Cellular microbes can be either unicellular, where one cell is the entire organism, or multicellular, where hundreds, thousands or even billions of cells can make up the entire organism. In the acellular camp we have the viruses and other infectious agents, such as prions and viroids. In this textbook the focus will be on the bacteria and archaea (traditionally known as the “prokaryotes,”) and the viruses and other acellular agents.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction to Microbiology
3. Cell Structure
4. Bacteria: Cell Walls
5. Bacteria: Internal Components
6. Bacteria: Surface Structures
8. Introduction to Viruses
9. Microbial Growth
10. Environmental Factors
11. Microbial Nutrition
12. Energetics & Redox Reactions
14. Chemolithotrophy & Nitrogen Metabolism
16. Taxonomy & Evolution
17. Microbial Genetics
18. Genetic Engineering
20. Microbial Symbioses
21. Bacterial Pathogenicity
22. The Viruses
Introductory Virology for 2nd and 3rd year courses
The material consists of a series of linked pages exploring an introduction to the concept of viruses, and an exploration of their general properties.
This site provides the basis of material for 7-lecture course in introductory microbiology (MCB2016F) and a 20-lecture course (MCB3024S, Defence and Disease) given to third-year students.
This set of lecture materials, laboratory notes, and activities are ancillary materials created for use with OpenStax Microbiology. The materials were created under a Round Nine Textbook Transformation Grant.
Topics covered include:
Biochemistry of the Bacterial Genome
" This seminar is designed to be an experimental and hands-on approach to applied chemistry (as seen in cooking). Cooking may be the oldest and most widespread application of chemistry and recipes may be the oldest practical result of chemical research. We shall do some cooking experiments to illustrate some chemical principles, including extraction, denaturation, and phase changes."
The exercises in this laboratory manual are designed to engage students in hand-on activities that reinforce their understanding of the microbial world. Topics covered include: staining and microscopy, metabolic testing, physical and chemical control of microorganisms, and immunology. The target audience is primarily students preparing for a career in the health sciences, however many of the topics would be appropriate for a general microbiology course as well.
Table of Contents
Lab 1. Introduction to Microscopy and Diversity of Cell Types
Lab 2. Introduction to Aseptic Techniques and Growth Media
Lab 3. Preparation of Bacterial Smears and Introduction to Staining
Lab 4. Acid fast and Endospore Staining
Lab 5. Metabolic Activities of Bacteria
Lab 6. Dichotomous Keys
Lab 7. The Effect of Physical Factors on Microbial Growth
Lab 8. Chemical Control of Microbial Growth—Disinfectants and Antibiotics
Lab 9. The Microbiology of Milk and Food
Lab 10. The Eukaryotes
Lab 11. Clinical Microbiology I; Anaerobic pathogens; Vectors of Infectious Disease
Lab 12. Clinical Microbiology II—Immunology and the Biolog System
Lab 13. Putting it all Together: Case Studies in Microbiology
Appendix I. Information About Lab Practical Exams
Appendix II. Scientific Notation and Serial Dilution
Appendix III. Introduction to Micropipetting
This course is the first in a three-course sequence that introduces biology in preparation for advanced study in areas of biological science such as medicine, dentistry, cell biology, microbiology, or veterinary medicine. Biol& 211 introduces students to cellular structure and function. Major topics studied include: energy capture and utilization, cellular reproduction, inheritance, genetic mutation, protein synthesis, gene expression, and biotechnology.
In this textbook the focus will be on the bacteria and archaea (traditionally known as the “prokaryotes,”) and the viruses and other acellular agents.
Table of Contents
Introduction to Microbiology
Bacteria: Cell Walls
Bacteria: Internal Components
Bacteria: Surface Structures
Introduction to Viruses
Energetics & Redox Reactions
Chemolithotrophy & Nitrogen Metabolism
Taxonomy & Evolution
Microbiology covers the scope and sequence requirements for a single-semester microbiology course for non-majors. The book presents the core concepts of microbiology with a focus on applications for careers in allied health. The pedagogical features of the text make the material interesting and accessible while maintaining the career-application focus and scientific rigor inherent in the subject matter. Microbiology’s art program enhances students’ understanding of concepts through clear and effective illustrations, diagrams, and photographs.
- Natural Science
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- Rice University
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- OpenStax College
- Anh-Hue Thi Tu
- Ann Auman
- Ann Paterson
- Ben Rowley
- Brian M. Forster
- Clifton Franklund
- George Pinchuk
- Graciela Brelles-Mariño
- Mark Schneegurt
- Mark Sutherland
- Myriam Alhadeff Feldman
- Nina Parker
- Paul Flowers
- Philip Lister
- Summer Allen
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This course will cover a range of diverse areas of microbiology, including virology, bacteriology, and even applied microbiology. This course will focus on the medical aspects of microbiology, as medical research has been the primary motivator in microbiology research. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain how organisms are classified using taxonomy, focusing on the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya; describe the chemical building blocks and metabolic processes important to sustain microbial life; identify the major principles of microbiology and describe the relationship between microbes and other living organisms; discuss pathogenic microbes and their epidemiology; differentiate between microorganisms based on their shape, size, arrangement, staining, and culture characteristics; outline antimicrobial methods including antibiotic use; explain how the human body protects itself; list uses for microbiology in food and beverage preparation and industry. (Biology 307)
This on-line open source BIOL& 260 (Microbiology) is a health sciences oriented course in microbiology. It has a laboratory component and the labs are intended to be integrated throughout the course. BIOL& 260 is intended primarily for students going in to health-related professions and will emphasize the human disease and health related areas of microbiology. Areas of microbiology such as environmental, agricultural, taxonomy or astrobiology may be mentioned but not emphasized.
Bacteria survive in almost all environments on Earth, including some considered extremely harsh. From the steaming hot springs of Yellowstone to the frozen tundra of the arctic to the barren deserts of Chile, microbes have been found thriving. Their tenacity to survive in such extreme and varied conditions allows them to play fundamental roles in global nutrient cycling. Microbes also cause a wide range of human diseases and can survive inhospitable conditions found in the human body. In this course, we will examine the molecular systems that bacteria use to adapt to changes in their environment. We will consider stresses commonly encountered, such as starvation, oxidative stress and heat shock, and also discuss how the adaptive responses affect the evolution of the bacteria. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.