This 8-minute video lesson presents an overview of types of immune responses. It looks at the difference between innate and adaptive immunity and the differences between humoral adaptive immunity and cell-mediated adaptive immunity. [Biology playlist: Lesson 52 of 71].
Study of the innate and acquired immune systems, lymphocyte activation and specificity, antigen-antibody reactions, and immune effector functions.
This tutorial provides an overview of the immune system, concentrating on the roles played by B and T lymphocytes, and on the antigen-presentation system.
All animals possess a nonspecific defense system called the innate immune system, which includes macrophages in mammals. Vertebrates have an additional powerful immune response called adaptive immunity. This Click & Learn describes key elements of the adaptive immune system, including B cells and antibody molecules, helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells, and antigen presentation.
Covers cells and tissues of the immune system, lymphocyte development, the structure and function of antigen receptors, the cell biology of antigen processing and presentation including molecular structure and assembly of MHC molecules, lymphocyte activation, the biology of cytokines, leukocyte-endothelial interactions, and the pathogenesis of immunologically mediated diseases. Consists of lectures and tutorials in which clinical cases are discussed with faculty tutors. Details of the case covering a number of immunological issues in the context of disease are posted on a student Web site.
View the animation to see how one type of immune cell-the helper T cell-interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. The message is an antigen, a protein fragment taken from an invading microbe. A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen.
Immune cells protect our bodies from both self-derived threats and exogenous pathogens, while keeping peace with normal cells and non-harmful commensal microbiota. They have various mechanisms to perform these tasks, a capacity that is essential for maintaining homeostasis. However, these same mechanisms can backfire, resulting in severe disorders such as immunodeficiency, chronic inflammation, allergy, degenerative diseases, and cancer. This course discusses the connections between normal physiology and disease by examining the developmental relationship between innate and adaptive immune cells as well as the functions and malfunctions of immune cells. The course familiarizes students with both basic biological principles (such as cell death and immune cell signaling) and clinical applications (such as immune checkpoint blockade). More generally, students learn to identify relevant primary research literature, critically evaluate experimental data, and reach their own conclusions based on primary data.
This sequence explores the elements of innate and acquired immune defense mecahnisms, the cells involved, their development and maturation, and biomolecular cellular communication mechanisms required to successfully fight off infection.
This 4-lecture series covers the basics of the immune system, how T cells work, how MHC proteins affect our susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, and the relationship between the immune system and infectious diseases.
This is a module framework. It can be viewed online or downloaded as a zip file.
As taught Autumn semester 2009.
Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The body fights infection through the functions of the immune system, whose power has been harnessed by the development of vaccination (immunisation).
Suitable for study at: Undergraduate levels 1 and 2.
Dr Ian Todd, School of Molecular Medical Sciences.
Dr Ian Todd is Associate Professor & Reader in Cellular Immunopathology at The University of Nottingham. After reading Biochemistry at The University of Oxford, he carried out research for his PhD in Immunology at University College London. He then undertook post-doctoral research at The Oregon Health Sciences University and The Middlesex Hospital Medical School. His main research interest is in the molecular and cellular bases of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. He is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and a recipient of the Lord Dearing Award for Teaching & Learning.
Important Copyright Information:
All images, tables and figures in this resource were reproduced from 'Lecture Notes Immunology' April 2010, 6th Edition, published by Wiley-Blackwell and with full permission of the co-author and faculty member, Dr Ian Todd.
No image, table or figure in this resource can be reproduced without prior permission from publishers Wiley-Blackwell.
Components of the immune system called antibodies are found in the liquid portion of blood and help protect the body from harm. Antibodies can also be used outside the body in a laboratory-based assay to help diagnose disease caused by malfunctions of the immune system or by infections.This virtual laboratory will demonstrate how such a test, termed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), is carried out and show some of the key experimental problems that may be encountered.