How a cell infected by a virus signals cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill the cell before the virus replicates and spreads. This video is two minutes and 34 seconds in length, and available in Quick Time (11 MB) and Windows Media Player (23 MB). All Infection Disease Animations are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/animations.html.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Identify major viral illnesses that affect humans
Compare vaccinations and anti-viral drugs as medical approaches to viruses
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes, which are bacteria and archaea. Viruses, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. In short; microbiology refers to the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microbiology is a broad term which includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology and other branches. Microbiology is researched actively, and the field is advancing continually. We have probably only studied about one percent of all of the microbe species on Earth. Although microbes were first observed over three hundred years ago, the field of microbiology can be said to be in its infancy relative to older biological disciplines such as zoology and botany.
Introductory Virology for 2nd and 3rd year courses
The material consists of a series of linked pages exploring an introduction to the concept of viruses, and an exploration of their general properties.
This site provides the basis of material for 7-lecture course in introductory microbiology (MCB2016F) and a 20-lecture course (MCB3024S, Defence and Disease) given to third-year students.
This course will cover a range of diverse areas of microbiology, including virology, bacteriology, and even applied microbiology. This course will focus on the medical aspects of microbiology, as medical research has been the primary motivator in microbiology research. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain how organisms are classified using taxonomy, focusing on the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya; describe the chemical building blocks and metabolic processes important to sustain microbial life; identify the major principles of microbiology and describe the relationship between microbes and other living organisms; discuss pathogenic microbes and their epidemiology; differentiate between microorganisms based on their shape, size, arrangement, staining, and culture characteristics; outline antimicrobial methods including antibiotic use; explain how the human body protects itself; list uses for microbiology in food and beverage preparation and industry. (Biology 307)
This activity is designed as an end-of-year project that incorporates skills such as Internet research and using Biology Workbench. Students should already have learned molecular biology and the basics of virology and immunology. After completeing this case, students will be able to analyze the effects of AIDS on a specific Ugandan community; identify questions or information concerning AIDS and HIV; research those questions about AIDS and HIV; relate HIV molecular data to the numbers of clones found in AIDS patients; compare and interpret the phylogenetic trees based on HIV DNA from pairs of patients; and discuss the implications of having many clones of HIV in each individual patient.
When two different strains of influenza infect a single cell, their genetic material can mix freely, resulting in a new third strain of influenza.
Based on an actual incident in which dengue virus was transmitted by an accidental needlestick, this case study introduces students to "emerging pathogens" and other concepts in parasitology, immunology, epidemiology, and public policy. Students also read a primary paper and learn about two modern techniques widely used in medical and research settings (i.e., EIA and Taqman RT-PCR). The case is suitable for general education biology, cell biology, microbiology, immunology, and science and public policy courses.
Delivering a single virus to a cell allows the virus to infect the cell, replicate, and give rise to many progeny viruses. These viruses can then infect many neighboring cells.