The abomasum is the fourth chamber in the ruminant. It functions similarly to the carnivore stomach as it is glandular and digests food chemically, rather than mechanically or by fermentation like the other 3 chambers of the ruminant stomach.
Provides acoustical background necessary to understand the role of sound in speech communication. Analyzes constraints imposed by the properties of sound and human anatomy on speech production (sound production from airflow and filtering by the vocal tract); auditory physiology (transformation of acoustical waves in the air to mechanical vibrations of cochlear structures); and sound perception (spatial hearing, masking, and auditory frequency selectivity). The Acoustics of Speech and Hearing is an H-Level graduate course that reviews the physical processes involved in the production, propagation and reception of human speech. Particular attention is paid to how the acoustics and mechanics of the speech and auditory system define what sounds we are capable of producing and what sounds we can sense. Areas of discussion include: 1. the acoustic cues used in determining the direction of a sound source, 2. the acoustic and mechanical mechanisms involved in speech production and 3. the acoustic and mechanical mechanism used to transduce and analyze sounds in the ear
Active transport is reliant on carrier proteins and thus follows the same rules as facilitated diffusion in that they are specific have a maximum rate and are subject to competition. Crucially they transport substances against their concentration gradient and so require energy to work.
The adrenal glands are paired bodies lying cranial to the kidneys within the retroperitoneal space. The glands consist of two layers; the cortex and medulla.
12.491 is a seminar focusing on problems of current interest in geology and geochemistry. For Fall 2005, the topic is organic geochemistry. Lectures and readings cover recent research in the development and properties of organic matter.
Aldosterone is a steroid hormone which is secreted from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. It has a mineralocorticoid activity and is the most important regulator of plasma potassium. When plasma potassium increases, increased stimulation of aldosterone occurs directly and also as a result of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS). Aldosterone is also the most important regulator of sodium excretion.
The horse is a monogastric hindgut fermenter. The horse evolved for grazing and it does so for up to 17 hours a day. A high proportion of the horse's dietary carbohydrate is in the form of starch. A mature horse eats 2-2.5% of it's body weight in dry matter every day, 1.5-1.75% of this should be fibre (hay/haylage). This is to prevent a rapid drop in pH in the large intestine and also to stimulate peristalsis in the gut and prevent build up of gas.
Gives an overview of the anatomy and physiology of mammalian and avian animals' alimentary systems.
You probably have a general understanding of how your body works. But do you fully comprehend how all of the intricate functions and systems of the human body work together to keep you healthy? This course will provide that insight. By approaching the study of the body in an organized way, you will be able to connect what you learn about anatomy and physiology to what you already know about your own body.
By taking this course, you will begin to think and speak in the language of the domain while integrating the knowledge you gain about anatomy to support explanations of physiological phenomenon. The course focuses on a few themes that, when taken together, provide a full view of what the human body is capable of and of the exciting processes going on inside of it.
Topics covered include: Structure and Function, Homeostasis, Levels of Organization, and Integration of Systems.
Note: This free course requires registration
Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body system and covers standard scope and sequence requirements. Its lucid text, strategically constructed art, career features, and links to external learning tools address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the course. The web-based version of Anatomy and Physiology also features links to surgical videos, histology, and interactive diagrams.
Includes the study of the gross and microscopic structure of the systems of the human body with special emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Integrates anatomy and physiology of cells, tissues, organs, the systems of the human body, and mechanisms responsible for homeostasis.
Includes sections on the Endocrine System, the Cardiovascular System, the Lymphatic and Immune System, the Respiratory System, the Digestive System, Nutrition, the Urinary System, the Reproductive System, and Development and Inheritance.
This Open Course is an adaptation of OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology and was created under a Round Nine ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.
Topics covered include:
This lab manual was created for Anatomy and Physiology I at the University of Georgia under a Textbook Transformation Grant and revised through a Scaling Up OER Pilot Grant.
The manual contains labs on cells, histology, the integumentary system, the skeletal system, the nervous system, muscles, and the senses.
This set of anatomy videos illustrating parts of the human body was created under a Round Eleven Mini-Grant for Ancillary Materials Creation.
Anatomy of the Senses
Short, animated videos on many Anatomy and Physiology topics. Videos used in college courses and cover the content presented in the first 2 semesters of Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing/Allied Health students.
Veterinary nurses need to have a firm grasp of the normal structure of an animal’s body and how it functions before they can understand the effect diseases and injuries have and the best ways to treat them. This book describes the structure of the animal body and the way in which it works. Animals encountered in normal veterinary practice are used as examples where possible.
Reviews and PDF version available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/anatomy-and-physiology-of-animals
The anus is the terminal portion of the alimentary tract which communicates with the external environment. Two sphincters control it's aperture. It allows faeces and gas to leave the body. Defeacation is the process where faeces are expelled from the rectum through the anus.
After emerging from the heart, the aortic artery divides into the right and left dorsal branches. Each branch feeds into a set of arches which are unique to the embryo. Most higher vertebrates have have 6 pairs of aortic arches. In the mammal the 5th pair do not form. These arches evolve to form some of the structures of the mammalian circulation. The fate of each arch varies.