Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Describe how feedback inhibition would affect the production of an intermediate or product in a pathway
Identify the mechanism that controls the rate of the transport of electrons through the electron transport chain
Biology, The Cell is an unit of study no. 3 of the Biology full course. It is grounded on studying cells, including cell structure, structure and function of plasma membranes, metabolism, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, cell communication, and cell reproduction.
This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of organization, from individual molecular interactions to populations of cells.
This course will cover the origins of cancer and the genetic and cellular basis for cancer. It will examine the factors that have been implicated in triggering cancers; the intercellular interactions involved in cancer proliferation; current treatments for cancer and how these are designed; and future research and treatment directions for cancer therapy. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain how the perception of cancer and theories of its causes have changed throughout history because of important discoveries made by scientists, researchers, and physicians; summarize the importance of understanding cell biology in the study of cancer, its causes, it progression, and its treatment; outline the transcription and translation processes used to convert DNA into proteins and what changes occur that convert proto-oncogenes into oncogenes and lead to unchecked cell growth and cancer; compare and contrast the mechanisms by which activation of oncogenes, loss of tumor suppressors, loss of cell cycle checkpoints, and development of faulty DNA repair lead to cancer; describe the various cancer prevention mechanisms including risk assessment, screening, and lifestyle and environmental modification; list the past, current, and future cancer treatments and the mechanism by which these target cancer causing cells. (Biology 404)
This course provides an introduction to the technology and policy context of public communications networks, through critical discussion of current issues in communications policy and their historical roots. The course focuses on underlying rationales and models for government involvement and the complex dynamics introduced by co-evolving technologies, industry structure, and public policy objectives. Cases drawn from cellular, fixed-line, and Internet applications include evolution of spectrum policy and current proposals for reform; the migration to broadband and implications for universal service policies; and property rights associated with digital content. The course lays a foundation for thesis research in this domain.
This course provides a solid understanding of consumer decision-making and how new products and services are developed, especially given the rapid pace of innovation and regulatory change, to help students succeed in consumer finance today. Specific examples will be drawn from retirement saving products, credit cards, peer to peer lending, cryptocurrencies, and financial advising.
" This design course targets the solution of clinical problems by use of implants and other medical devices. Topics include the systematic use of cell-matrix control volumes; the role of stress analysis in the design process; anatomic fit, shape and size of implants; selection of biomaterials; instrumentation for surgical implantation procedures; preclinical testing for safety and efficacy, including risk/benefit ratio assessment evaluation of clinical performance and design of clinical trials. Student project materials are drawn from orthopedic devices, soft tissue implants, artificial organs, and dental implants."
This course examines the choices and constraints regarding sources and uses of energy by households, firms, and governments through a number of frameworks to describe and explain behavior at various levels of aggregation. Examples include a wide range of countries, scope, settings, and analytical approaches. This course is one of many OCW Energy Courses, and it is a core subject in MIT's undergraduate Energy Studies Minor. This Institute-wide program complements the deep expertise obtained in any major with a broad understanding of the interlinked realms of science, technology, and social sciences as they relate to energy and associated environmental challenges.
Mayer, Warner, Siedel and Lieberman's Government Regulation and the Legal Environment of Business is an up-to-date textbook that covers legal issues that students must understand in today’s highly regulated business environment. The text is organized to permit instructors to tailor the materials to their particular approach. The authors take special care to engage students by relating law to everyday events with their clear, concise and readable style.
After introductory chapters covering the legal environment of business, Government Regulation and the Legal Environment of Business provides students with context and essential legal concepts relating to contracts, consumer credit transactions, bankruptcy, intellectual property, securities regulation, regulation of real estate, antitrust, unfair trade practices, employment law and labor relations. The text provides the vocabulary and legal savvy they will need to talk in an educated way to customers, suppliers, employees, creditors, shareholders, government regulators and other stakeholders — and to their own lawyers.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Law and Legal Systems
Chapter 2: Corporate Social Responsibility and Business Ethics
Chapter 3: Courts and the Legal Process
Chapter 4: Constitutional Law and US Commerce
Chapter 5: Administrative Law
Chapter 6: Criminal Law
Chapter 7: Introduction to Tort Law
Chapter 8: Contracts
Chapter 9: Consumer Credit Transactions
Chapter 10: Secured Transactions and Suretyship
Chapter 11: Mortgages and Nonconsensual Liens
Chapter 12: Bankruptcy
Chapter 13: Intellectual Property
Chapter 14: The Nature and Regulation of Real Estate and the Environment
Chapter 15: Securities Regulation
Chapter 16: Antitrust Law
Chapter 17: Unfair Trade Practices and the Federal Trade Commission
Chapter 18: Employment Law
Chapter 19: Labor-Management Relations
Chapter 20: International Law
15.616 is an introduction to business law which covers the fundamentals, including contracts, liability, regulation, employment, and corporations, with an in-depth treatment of the legal issues relating to breakthrough technologies, including the legal framework of R&D, the commercialization of new high-technology products in start-ups and mature companies, and the liability and regulatory implications of new products and innovative business models. There is extensive attention to national and international intellectual property protection and strategies. Examples are drawn from many industries, including information technology, communications, and life sciences.
Frameworks and Models for Technology and Policy students explore perspectives in the policy process -- agenda setting, problem definition, framing the terms of debate, formulation and analysis of options, implementation and evaluation of policy outcomes using frameworks including economics and markets, law, and business and management. Methods include cost/benefit analysis, probabilistic risk assessment, and system dynamics. Exercises for Technology and Policy students include developing skills to work on the interface between technology and societal issues; simulation exercises; case studies; and group projects that illustrate issues involving multiple stakeholders with different value structures, high levels of uncertainty, multiple levels of complexity; and value trade-offs that are characteristic of engineering systems. Emphasis on negotiation, team building and group dynamics, and management of multiple actors and leadership. This course explores perspectives in the policy process - agenda setting, problem definition, framing the terms of debate, formulation and analysis of options, implementation and evaluation of policy outcomes using frameworks including economics and markets, law, and business and management. Methods include cost/benefit analysis, probabilistic risk assessment, and system dynamics. Exercises include developing skills to work on the interface between technology and societal issues; simulation exercises; case studies; and group projects that illustrate issues involving multiple stakeholders with different value structures, high levels of uncertainty, multiple levels of complexity; and value trade-offs that are characteristic of engineering systems. Emphasis on negotiation, team building and group dynamics, and management of multiple actors and leadership.
In The Law of Corporate Finance and Financial Markets, much of the course focuses on M&A and the law-sensitive aspects of financial services and financial markets. The course is designed to be an introduction to business law which covers the fundamentals, including contracts, liability, regulation, employment, and corporations. 15.617 provides an in-depth treatment of the law of finance.
This course explores the history of the ideal of personal freedom with an eye towards contemporary debates over the pros and cons of the regulatory state. The first part of the course surveys the sociological and theological sources of the concepts of freedom and civil society, and introduces liberty's leading relatives or competitors: property, equality, community, and republicanism. The second part consists of a series of case studies in the rise of modern liberty and libertarianism: the abolition of slavery, the struggle for religious freedom, and the twentieth-century American civil liberties movement. In the last part of the course, we take up debates over the role of libertarianism vs. the regulatory state in a variety of contexts: counter-terrorism, health care, the financial markets, and the Internet.
After a historical introduction to molecular biology, this course describes the basic types of DNA and RNA structure and the molecular interactions that shape them. It describes how DNA is packaged within the cellular nucleus as chromosomes. It also describes the core processes of molecular biology: replication of DNA, transcription of DNA into messenger RNA, and translation of messenger RNA into a protein. These are followed by modifications of these basic processes: regulation of gene expression, DNA mutation and repair, and DNA recombination and transposition. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: discuss the experimental findings that lead to the discovery of inheritance laws; discuss the experimental findings that lead to the identification of DNA as the hereditary material; compare and contrast the structure and function of mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and DNA; identify the characteristics of catalyzed reactions; compare and contrast enzyme and ribozyme catalyzed reactions; discuss the structure of the chromosome and the consequence of histone modifications in eukaryotes; discuss the stages of transcription, differential splicing, and RNA turnover; predict the translation product of an mRNA using the genetic code; compare and contrast transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; identify codon bias and variations of the standard genetic code; compare and contrast the regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression; predict the activation of an operon and tissue specific gene expression based on the availability of regulators; compare and contrast mutations based on their effect on the gene product; discuss DNA repair mechanisms; discuss DNA recombination, transposition, and the consequence of exon shuffling; design custom-made recombinant DNA using PCR, restriction enzymes, and site-directed mutagenesis; compare and contrast the uses of model organisms; discuss the uses of model organisms in specific molecular biology applications. (Biology 311)
The financial crisis of 2007-8 has already revolutionized institutions, markets, and regulation. Wright's Money and Banking V 2.0 captures those revolutionary changes and packages them in a way that engages undergraduates enrolled in Money and Banking and Financial Institutions and Markets courses.
Minimal mathematics, accessible language, and a student-oriented tone ease readers into complex subjects like money, interest rates, banking, asymmetric information, financial crises and regulation, monetary policy, monetary theory, and other standard topics. Numerous short cases, called "Stop and Think" boxes, promote internalization over memorization. Exercise drills ensure basic skills competency where appropriate. Short, snappy sections that begin with a framing question enhance readability and encourage assignment completion.
Population ecology is the subfield of ecology that identifies those ecological factors--in the community or in the ecosystem--that regulate a population's size. The student will learn about intrinsic population growth and discover how such growth can be quantified, along with the factors that inhibit growth. Also, the student will apply his or her understanding of population ecology to determine a population's current status and construct a management plan to maintain population size. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: explain how population ecology is used to address problems in evolution, conservation, epidemiology, and resource management; describe the interactions among and between the biotic and abiotic components of a healthy ecosystem and explain how these components are interdependent; identify factors that threaten the maintenance of biodiversity in ecosystems and the population measures used to sustain ecosystem biodiversity; use mathematical models and equations to describe population growth and interaction between populations; identify density-dependent and density-independent factors that affect population growth and regulation; employ the principles and techniques of population dynamics and ecology to analyze population viability and develop a resource management plan by using data gathered from a sample population. (Biology 313)
The issue of sustainability and specifically sustainable business is of increasing interest and importance to students of business and also students in the sciences, government, public policy, planning and other fields. There can be significant benefits from students learning about sustainable business from the rich experiences of business practice.
The Sustainable Business Case Book by Gittell, Magnusson and Merenda is one of the first of its kind. It combines the the theory of sustainability with key concepts, analytical information and contextual information with a collection of cases which provide insights, perspective and practical guidance on how sustainable businesses operate from different business functional area perspectives.
The Sustainable Business Case Book can be used as a stand-alone text or as a supplemental textbook for undergraduate courses that have an interest in sustainable business. While the book’s primary focus is on the relationship between business and sustainability, the book can also be used in courses offered in fields other than business, including environmental and earth systems sciences, environmental studies, urban planning, economics and public policy.
The first part of The Sustainable Business Case Book, Chapter 1 through Chapter 3, introduces students to the meaning of sustainability, and the practice of sustainable business. The introductory chapters also describe key concepts, analytical frameworks, and contextual information relevant for the understanding of business sustainability. Chapter 1, defines sustainability and describes how and why businesses choose to engage in sustainable practices and how sustainable business practices relate to corporate profitability and social responsibility. Chapters 2 and 3 provide important background and contextual information affecting sustainable business practice. Chapter 2, The Science of Sustainability, reviews scientific evidence about climate change and the human and business influences on climate change. Chapter 3, Sustainability, Public Policy and Business, describes the significant role of government and public policy in sustainability, including setting the rules, regulations and laws that define the market and market opportunities for sustainable business practice.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Sustainable Business and Sustainable Business Core Concepts and Frameworks
Chapter 2: The Science of Sustainability
Chapter 3: Government, Public Policy, and Sustainable Business
Chapter 4: Accountability for Sustainability
Chapter 5: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Sustainable Business
Chapter 6: Sustainable Business Marketing
Chapter 7: Case: Sustainable Business Entrepreneurship: Simply Green Biofuels
Chapter 8: Case: Marketing Sustainability: Seventh Generation Creating a Green Household Consumer Product
Chapter 9: Case: Brewing a Better World: Sustainable Supply Chain Management at Green Mountain Coffee Roasters, Inc.
Chapter 10: Case: Oakhurst Dairy: Operations Management and Sustainability
Chapter 11: Case: Accounting for Sustainability: How Does Timberland Do It and Why?
Chapter 12: Case: Sustainable Investing: Pax World Helping Investors Change the World
Chapter 13: Case: Strategic Mission–Driven Sustainable Business: Stonyfield Yogurt