Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Define matter and elements
Describe the interrelationship between protons, neutrons, and electrons
Compare the ways in which electrons can be donated or shared between atoms
Explain the ways in which naturally occurring elements combine to create molecules, cells, tissues, organ systems, and organisms
This survey chemistry course is designed to introduce students to the world of chemistry. In this course, we will study chemistry from the ground up, learning the basics of the atom and its behavior. We will apply this knowledge to understand the chemical properties of matter and the changes and reactions that take place in all types of matter. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: Define the general term 'chemistry.' Distinguish between the physical and chemical properties of matter. Distinguish between mixtures and pure substances. Describe the arrangement of the periodic table. Perform mathematical operations involving significant figures. Convert measurements into scientific notation. Explain the law of conservation of mass, the law of definite composition, and the law of multiple proportions. Summarize the essential points of Dalton's atomic theory. Define the term 'atom.' Describe electron configurations. Draw Lewis structures for molecules. Name ionic and covalent compounds using the rules for nomenclature of inorganic compounds. Explain the relationship between enthalpy change and a reaction's tendency to occur. (Chemistry 101; See also: Biology 105. Mechanical Engineering 004)
Relation of purpose of data to data requirements. Relation of data to costs.
Accuracy requirements of measurements and error propagation:
Related to a problem the required accuracy of measurements and the consequences for accuracy in the final result are discussed. Different types of errors are handled. Propagation of errors; for dependent and independent measurements, from mathematical relations and regression is demonstrated. Recapitulated is the theory of regression and correlation.
Interpretation of measurements, data completion: By standard statistical methods screening of measured data is performed; double mass analysis, residual mass, simple rainfall-runoff modelling. Detection of trends; split record tests, Spearman rank tests. Methods to fill data gaps and do filtering on data series for noise reduction.
Methods of hydrological measurements and measuring equipment: To determine quantitatively the most important elements in the hydrological cycle an overview is presented of most common hydrological measurements, measuring equipment and indirect determination methods i.e. for precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, river discharge and groundwater tables. Use, purpose and measurement techniques for tracers in hydrology is discussed.
Advantages and disadvantages and specific condition/application of methods are discussed. Equipment is demonstrated and discussed.
Areal distributed observation: Areal interpolation techniques of point observations: inverse distance, Thiessen, contouring, Kriging. Comparison of interpolation techniques and estimation of errors. Correlation analysis of areal distributed observation of rainfall
Design of measuring networks: Based on correlation characteristics from point measurements (e.g. rainfall stations) and accuracy requirements the design of a network of stations is demonstrated.