Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Identify the shared characteristics of the natural sciences
Summarize the steps of the scientific method
Compare inductive reasoning with deductive reasoning
Describe the goals of basic science and applied science
Different hormones, neurotransmitters and reflexes are involved in the complicated process of feeding in animals. Secretions and motility of the gastrointestinal tract are stimulated and carefully regulated by numerous factors, including environmental stimuli and the presence of food in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract from the oral cavity right through to the intestines. When a harmful substance is ingested the body acts to eliminate it in different ways to prevent the animal becoming ill, for example, through vomiting and diarrhoea. If one or more of the pathways in controlling feeding is damaged or inhibited, then problems such as obesity occurs.
Introduction to theories of syntax underlying work currently being done within the lexical-functional and government-binding frameworks. Organized into three interrelated parts, each focused upon a particular area of concern: phrase structure; the lexicon; and principles and parameters. Grammatical rules and processes constitute a focus of attention throughout the course that serve to reveal both modular structure of grammar and interaction of grammatical components. This course is concerned with the concepts and principles which have been of central significance in the recent development of syntactic theory, with special focus on the "Government and Binding" (GB) / "Principles and Parameters" (P&P) / "Minimalist Program" (MP) approach. It is the first of a series of two courses (24.951 is taught during the Fall and 24.952 is taught in the Spring). This course deals mostly with phrase structure, argument structure and its syntactic expression, including "A-movement". Though other issues (e.g. wh-movement, antecedent-contained deletion, extraposition) may be mentioned during the semester, the course will not systematically investigate these topics in class until 24.952. The goal of the course is to understand why certain problems have been treated in certain ways. Thus, on many occasions a variety of approaches will be discussed, and the (recent) historical development of these approaches are emphasized.
These worksheets, the Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation textbook, and files on this site created by Tony Kuphaldt are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.
Covers the following:
Introduction to industrial instrumentation
Discrete process measurement
Discrete control elements
Relay control systems
Programmable Logic Controllers
Analog electronic instrumentation
Digital data acquisition and networks
FOUNDATION Fieldbus instrumentation
Continuous pressure measurement
Continuous level measurement
Continuous temperature measurement
Continuous fluid flow measurement
Continuous analytical measurement
Machine vibration measurement
Electric power measurement and control
Variable-speed motor controls
Process dynamics and PID controller tuning
Basic process control strategies
Process safety and instrumentation
Problem-solving and diagnostic strategies
First of two-term sequence on modeling, analysis and control of dynamic systems. Mechanical translation, uniaxial rotation, electrical circuits and their coupling via levers, gears and electro-mechanical devices. Analytical and computational solution of linear differential equations and state-determined systems. Laplace transforms, transfer functions. Frequency response, Bode plots. Vibrations, modal analysis. Open- and closed-loop control, instability. Time-domain controller design, introduction to frequency-domain control design techniques. Case studies of engineering applications.
Motor pathways carry signals from the brain to skeletal muscle and smooth muscle such as those contained in glands. The system consists of upper and lower motor neurones. The information provided below is primarily focussed on the motor pathways that coordinate skeletal muscle movement, i.e. motor pathways related to voluntary control of skeletal muscles.
Our objective in this course is to introduce you to concepts and techniques related to the design, planning, control, and improvement of manufacturing and service operations. The course begins with a holistic view of operations, where we stress the coordination of product development, process management, and supply chain management. As the course progresses, we will investigate various aspects of each of these three tiers of operations in detail. We will cover topics in the areas of process analysis, materials management, production scheduling, quality improvement, and product design. To pursue the course objective most effectively, you will have to: 1. Study the assigned reading materials. 2. Prepare and discuss cases, readings, and exercises in class. 3. Prepare written analyses of cases.
Using examples from anthropology and sociology alongside classical and contemporary social theory, this course explores the nature of dominant and subordinate relationships, types of legitimate authority, and practices of resistance. The course also examines how we are influenced in subtle ways by the people around us, who makes controlling decisions in the family, how people get ahead at work, and whether democracies, in fact, reflect the "will of the people..
Fundamentals of detection and estimation for signal processing, communications, and control. Vector spaces of random variables. Bayesian and Neyman-Pearson hypothesis testing. Bayesian and nonrandom parameter estimation. Minimum-variance unbiased estimators and the Cramer-Rao bounds. Representations for stochastic processes; shaping and whitening filters; Karhunen-Loeve expansions. Detection and estimation from waveform observations. Advanced topics: linear prediction and spectral estimation; Wiener and Kalman filters.