The abomasum is the fourth chamber in the ruminant. It functions similarly to the carnivore stomach as it is glandular and digests food chemically, rather than mechanically or by fermentation like the other 3 chambers of the ruminant stomach.
Provides acoustical background necessary to understand the role of sound in speech communication. Analyzes constraints imposed by the properties of sound and human anatomy on speech production (sound production from airflow and filtering by the vocal tract); auditory physiology (transformation of acoustical waves in the air to mechanical vibrations of cochlear structures); and sound perception (spatial hearing, masking, and auditory frequency selectivity). The Acoustics of Speech and Hearing is an H-Level graduate course that reviews the physical processes involved in the production, propagation and reception of human speech. Particular attention is paid to how the acoustics and mechanics of the speech and auditory system define what sounds we are capable of producing and what sounds we can sense. Areas of discussion include: 1. the acoustic cues used in determining the direction of a sound source, 2. the acoustic and mechanical mechanisms involved in speech production and 3. the acoustic and mechanical mechanism used to transduce and analyze sounds in the ear
Active transport is reliant on carrier proteins and thus follows the same rules as facilitated diffusion in that they are specific have a maximum rate and are subject to competition. Crucially they transport substances against their concentration gradient and so require energy to work.
The adrenal glands are paired bodies lying cranial to the kidneys within the retroperitoneal space. The glands consist of two layers; the cortex and medulla.
12.491 is a seminar focusing on problems of current interest in geology and geochemistry. For Fall 2005, the topic is organic geochemistry. Lectures and readings cover recent research in the development and properties of organic matter.
Aldosterone is a steroid hormone which is secreted from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. It has a mineralocorticoid activity and is the most important regulator of plasma potassium. When plasma potassium increases, increased stimulation of aldosterone occurs directly and also as a result of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS). Aldosterone is also the most important regulator of sodium excretion.
The horse is a monogastric hindgut fermenter. The horse evolved for grazing and it does so for up to 17 hours a day. A high proportion of the horse's dietary carbohydrate is in the form of starch. A mature horse eats 2-2.5% of it's body weight in dry matter every day, 1.5-1.75% of this should be fibre (hay/haylage). This is to prevent a rapid drop in pH in the large intestine and also to stimulate peristalsis in the gut and prevent build up of gas.
Gives an overview of the anatomy and physiology of mammalian and avian animals' alimentary systems.
You probably have a general understanding of how your body works. But do you fully comprehend how all of the intricate functions and systems of the human body work together to keep you healthy? This course will provide that insight. By approaching the study of the body in an organized way, you will be able to connect what you learn about anatomy and physiology to what you already know about your own body.
By taking this course, you will begin to think and speak in the language of the domain while integrating the knowledge you gain about anatomy to support explanations of physiological phenomenon. The course focuses on a few themes that, when taken together, provide a full view of what the human body is capable of and of the exciting processes going on inside of it.
Topics covered include: Structure and Function, Homeostasis, Levels of Organization, and Integration of Systems.
Note: This free course requires registration
The information shared within this website was carefully curated and designed to promote quality online teaching and learning experiences for Anatomy and Physiology I faculty and students within the University of North Carolina System.
STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES (SLOS):
Apply proper anatomical language to describe structure and function of body parts and organs of the human body.
Explain and apply the concept of homeostasis and describe homeostatic mechanisms.
Differentiate macro and micro anatomical structures.
Apply practical laboratory skills to solve physiological problems.
Module 1 - Body Plan & Organization
Module 2 - Histology
Module 3 - Integumentary System
Module 4 - Skeletal System
Module 5 - Joints and Articulations
Module 6 - Muscular System
Module 7 - Organization of Nervous Tissue
Module 8 - Central Nervous System
Module 9 - Peripheral Nervous System
Module 10 - Special Senses
Module 11 - Cardiovascular System - Heart
An interactive web book for any device is available here
The Anatomy Quizbook is a series of carefully selected questions addressing core learning in clinically relevant anatomy. It provides the opportunity for both pre-med and medical students to improve their knowledge of anatomy, as well as their performance in tests and examinations.
The form of self-testing presented in the Anatomy Quizbook has many benefits: it is proven to aid retention (Lieberman 2012), it is a very useful method to apply at regular intervals to ensure robust knowledge, and it is extremely beneficial in determining what is known before rather than after a test or exam.
Bearing in mind that it is neither necessary nor advisable to learn everything there is to know about anatomy, it is intended that the Anatomy Quizbook be used in conjunction with a comprehensive anatomy textbook such as Clinically Oriented Anatomy (Moore et al, 2014) or Gray’s Anatomy for Students (Drake et al, 2015). And whilst the Anatomy Quizbook is intended primarily for students, tutors may also find this a very useful teaching resource.
Anatomy and Physiology is a dynamic textbook for the two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body system and covers standard scope and sequence requirements. Its lucid text, strategically constructed art, career features, and links to external learning tools address the critical teaching and learning challenges in the course. The web-based version of Anatomy and Physiology also features links to surgical videos, histology, and interactive diagrams.
Includes the study of the gross and microscopic structure of the systems of the human body with special emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Integrates anatomy and physiology of cells, tissues, organs, the systems of the human body, and mechanisms responsible for homeostasis.
Includes sections on the Endocrine System, the Cardiovascular System, the Lymphatic and Immune System, the Respiratory System, the Digestive System, Nutrition, the Urinary System, the Reproductive System, and Development and Inheritance.
This Open Course is an adaptation of OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology and was created under a Round Nine ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.
Topics covered include:
This lab manual was created for Anatomy and Physiology I at the University of Georgia under a Textbook Transformation Grant and revised through a Scaling Up OER Pilot Grant.
The manual contains labs on cells, histology, the integumentary system, the skeletal system, the nervous system, muscles, and the senses.
This set of anatomy videos illustrating parts of the human body was created under a Round Eleven Mini-Grant for Ancillary Materials Creation.
Anatomy of the Senses
Short, animated videos on many Anatomy and Physiology topics. Videos used in college courses and cover the content presented in the first 2 semesters of Anatomy and Physiology for Nursing/Allied Health students.
Veterinary nurses need to have a firm grasp of the normal structure of an animal’s body and how it functions before they can understand the effect diseases and injuries have and the best ways to treat them. This book describes the structure of the animal body and the way in which it works. Animals encountered in normal veterinary practice are used as examples where possible.
Reviews and PDF version available here: https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/anatomy-and-physiology-of-animals
The anus is the terminal portion of the alimentary tract which communicates with the external environment. Two sphincters control it's aperture. It allows faeces and gas to leave the body. Defeacation is the process where faeces are expelled from the rectum through the anus.
After emerging from the heart, the aortic artery divides into the right and left dorsal branches. Each branch feeds into a set of arches which are unique to the embryo. Most higher vertebrates have have 6 pairs of aortic arches. In the mammal the 5th pair do not form. These arches evolve to form some of the structures of the mammalian circulation. The fate of each arch varies.
This 12 session course is designed for the beginning or novice archer and uses recurve indoor target bows and equipment. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the basic techniques of indoor target archery emphasizing the care and use of equipment, range safety, stance and shooting techniques, scoring and competition.
Although the information on this page is based around the anatomy of the canine hindlimb, it is essentially the anatomy of the arteries in domestic species. Any major differences will be discussed on their respective pages
The Atlas of Comparative Anatomy began as a class project at SUNY Oneonta in 2017 because of the lack of a comprehensive freely-accessible photographic atlas. The majority of entries in this atlas were produced by students including dissection, photography, and identification. It is a work in progress, but we hope that students of anatomy find this a useful tool for studying anatomy outside of the lab.
The authors are interested in learning who adopts this tool for their course. If you do, please email Dr. Kristen Roosa at Kristen.Roosa@oneonta.edu.
PDF version available: https://dspace.sunyconnect.suny.edu/handle/1951/71276
The peripheral nervous system found in most domestic species can be segregated into three sub-systems; the sensory system, the somatic motor system and the autonomic system. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the internal environment of the body including factors such as body temperature, blood pressure and concentrations of many substances. The ANS is also responsible for mobilising the body's resources during stressful situations. The ANS controls gland cells, cardiac muscle cells and smooth muscle cells. Control of this nervous system is involuntary and regulation is via autonomic reflexes. The autonomic reflex arc system is very similar to that of the somatic motor system, i.e. there are sensory (afferent) nerve fibres, an information integration centre, motor (efferent) fibres and effector cells. Any levels of increased activity within the autonomic nervous system can result in both stimulation or inhibition of effector cells, although it is only the efferent part of the reflex arc that is actually considered autonomic.
The intestines occupy the caudal part of the body. They contact the reproductive organs and the gizzard. The small intestine is long and relatively uniform in shape and size. There is no demarcation between the jejunum and the ileum.
BIOL 242 – Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P) 242 is the second class in a two quarter sequence in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization. You can think of this course as “An Owner’s Guide to the Human Body”. My goal is to help you learn how your body works so that you can explain concepts to others and apply knowledge to novel situations (e.g. make informed decisions regarding your own health and those whom you care about). You’ll also learn how to evaluate scientific research that forms the basis of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology and gain an appreciation for what remains to be discovered. To accomplish these goals requires significant effort from both of us. Although you will need to commit information to memory, I will ask you to focus on learning for understanding and your assessments will reflect this emphasis.
ANP 242 topics include: nervous system structure and physiology; special senses; endocrine system, reproductive system; digestive system; metabolism; urinary system; fluid and electrolyte balance; and, unifying themes of homeostasis, health and disease.
You will also gain experience problem solving, interpreting data, communicating verbally and in writing with others, developing information literacy skills, using technology and exploring how your knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be applied to real world health challenges. This course is designed to build the core knowledge and skills needed to succeed in a world that demands flexibility and continuous learning and to prepare you for advanced study of anatomy, physiology and clinically-related subjects.
Lab 1: Overview & The Microscope
Lab 2: Cytology
Lab 3: Histology
Lab 4: The Integumentary System
Lab 5: The Axial Skeleton
Lab 6: The Appendicular Skeleton
Lab 7: Joints
Lab 8: The Axial Muscles
Lab 9: The Appendicular Muscles
Lab 10: Nervous Tissue
Lab 11: The Central Nervous System (Brain)
Lab 12: Cranial and Spinal Nerves
Lab 13: The Somatic Nervous System (Special Senses)
Lab 14: The Endocrine System
Lab 15: Blood
Lab 16: The Heart
Lab 17: Blood Vessels and Circulation
Lab 18: The Lymphatic System
Lab 19: The Respiratory System
Lab 20: The Digestive System
Lab 21: The Urinary System
Lab 22: The Reproductive System (Male)
Lab 23: The Reproductive System (Female)
Bile formation is an osmotic secretory process that is driven by the active concentration of bile salts in the bile canaliculi. Bile acids are produced from cholesterol and prior to being excreted from hepatocytes are bound to specific amino acids allowing them to exist as bile salts. One side of the bile salt molecule is negatively charged (hydrophilic) whilst the other is hydrophobic allowing bile salts to form micelles once a certain bile salt concentration has been reached.
Once sperm has entered the the oocyte, an ootid is formed. During early stages the ootid will contain male and female pronuclei along with the first and second polar bodies. Fusion of the male and female pronuclei will result in a single diploid nucleus or syngamy. Once syngamy has occurred, the zona pellucida then develops into an imprenetrable layer that prevents polyspermy and so polyploidy. Once the zona pellucida has developed, the ootid is now referred to as a zygote (diploid) and will begin undergoing mitotic divisions via a cleavage process that will begin to give rise to daughter cells called blastomeres. These cleavage divisions will begin to produce a 4-celled embryo and then an 8-celled embryo.
The Blood Brain Barrier refers to the mechanisms in place around the microvasculature of the brain to ensure optimal neural functioning. Endothelial cells are the structural basis of the blood brain barrier and are joined by tight cellular junctions formed by the transmembrane proteins the occludins and the claudins.
This page has links to many topics centered around blood pressure: blood pressure measurement, physiology, kidney control of blood pressure, renal blood pressure, and the renin angiotensin aldosterine system
Osteogenesis is the formation of bone. Bone forms from one of three lineages; the skull forms from the neural crest; the limb skeleton forms from the lateral plate mesoderm; and the axial skeleton forms from the paraxial mesoderm (sclerotome).
This course provides an outline of vertebrate functional neuroanatomy, aided by studies of comparative neuroanatomy and evolution, and by studies of brain development. Topics include early steps to a central nervous system, basic patterns of brain and spinal cord connections, regional development and differentiation, regeneration, motor and sensory pathways and structures, systems underlying motivations, innate action patterns, formation of habits, and various cognitive functions. In addition, lab techniques are reviewed and students perform brain dissections.
The trachea bifurcates at the levels of the 4th-6th intercostal space, approximately halfway between the thoracic inlet and the diaphragm. It divides into two principle bronchi, tubes which conduct air into the lungs, and they divide into two lobar bronchi for the left lung, and into four lobar bronchi for the right lung. These further divide into smaller bronchi and bronchioles within the lung tissue.
The Bursa of Fabricus is a primary lymphoid organ found in birds. The bursa was the first place that a certain subset of lymphocytes was observed and consequently they were named B lymphocytes (bursa of Fabricius or bursa equivalent organs). The bursa is involved in the differentiation of B lymphocytes.
Development of the Central Nervous System (CNS) includes development of the brain, spinal cord, optic and auditory systems, as well as surrounding supporting cells including ependymal cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. Information within this page will exclude development of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) which includes nerve and ganglia formation.
Blood is supplied to the brain from a ventral arterial supply in all species; from a circle of arteries called the Circle of Willis (also called the cerebral arterial circle or arterial circle of Willis) which lies ventrally to the hypothalamus where it forms a loose ring around the infundibular stalk. Although the appearance of the circle of Willis is fairly constant amongst mammals, the sources of blood supply to the circle and the direction of flow around the circle are very species specific. Blood is supplied to the brain by the internal carotid artery in dogs and horses whilst in other domestic species the main blood supply is from branches of the maxillary artery.
The cecum is a blind ending diverticulum of the large intestine and it exists at the junction of the ileum and the ascending colon. Its size and physiological importance varies between species. It is a site of microbial fermentation, absorption and transportation.
Camelids have a similar digestive structure to other ruminants, although camelids only have three separate stomach compartments compared to the four found in domestic species. The first element of the camelid GI tract, known as C1, can be compared to the rumen whilst the second, known as C2 can be compared to the reticulum. The final element of the tract, C3 can be compared to the abomasum. Therefore camelids do not have a structure comparable to an omasum.
The mammalian cardiovascular and respiratory systems have evolved primarily to provide the tissues of the body with oxygen and to remove carbon dioxide. The cardiorespiratory system also has metabolic and heat exchange roles.
Each mammary complex consists of 5-20 mammary units and their corresponding ducts. The ducts open separately on the tip of the teat. Shallow grooves indicate the border between complexes. An intermammary sulcus divides the right from the left row.
The lower urinary tract is the collection of organs which convey the formed urine from the kidneys to the exterior of the body. The urine is not altered in this part of the system in species other than the horse (where mucous is added) but instead its function is to collect and store the urine until enough of it is collected for release to become necessary. This gives the animal urinary continence. Three major structures make up this tract. The ureters, the bladder and the urethra.
Also referred to as the reticuloendothelial system or mononuclear phagocytic system. It is comprised of primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, Bursa of Fabricius, the foetal liver and the thymus) which are responsible for the production of lymphocytes, and the secondary lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue) which function to provide an environment where lymphocytes can react to antigen from the tissue fluid, blood and mucosal surfaces.
The musculoskeletal system includes bones, joints, cartilage, muscles, ligaments and tendons. In order to describe anatomical landmarks for example for the purposes of surgery and to be able to describe different directional information, for example when recording the view of a recently taken x-ray, it is necessary to have a way of describing the planes and axes that can be applied to the musculoskeletal system to pinpoint a specific anatomical area.
This page has links to information about pregnancy and parturation; including sperm in the female tract, fertilisation, sexual differentiation, genital development, gestation lengths in different species, maternal recognition of pregnancy, litter sizes, placenta and its endocrine function, fetal circulation, puerperium, and reproductive disorders.
Surveys the molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal communication. Covers ion channels in excitable membrane, synaptic transmission, and synaptic plasticity. Correlates the properties of ion channels and synaptic transmission with their physiological function such as learning and memory. Discusses the organizational principles for the formation of functional neural networks at synaptic and cellular levels.
The Central Nervous System (CNS) is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. This page is specifically focussed on the histologic appearance, for anatomy see Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain, Cranial Nerves, Spinal Cord and CNS Development.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounds the brain as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. It helps cushion the central nervous system (CNS), acting in a similar manner to a shock absorber. It also acts as a chemical buffer providing immunological protection and a transport system for waste products and nutrients. The CSF also provides buoyancy to the soft neural tissues which effectively allows the neural tissue to "float" in the CSF. This prevents the brain tissue from becoming deformed under its own weight. It acts as a diffusion medium for the transport of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine substances.
The cervix can be palpated transrectally and forms a sphincter controlling access to the uterus.The anatomy of the cervical canal is adapted to suit a particular pattern of reproduction and its composition will alter under the influence of reproductive hormones. Not only does it respond to the fluctuation in oestrodiol during the oestrous cycle, but is responsive to prostaglandins and oxytocin in order to 'soften' for parturition.
Interactive radiology images, animated modules showing the physiology of difficult to understand muscle groups, sketches of anatomy, and links to the already existing quality neuroanatomy website.
Head and Neck
Back and Core
This course is designed to provide an understanding of how the human brain works in health and disease, and is intended for both the Brain and Cognitive Science major and the non-Brain and Cognitive Science major. Knowledge of how the human brain works is important for all citizens, and the lessons to be learned have enormous implications for public policy makers and educators. The course will cover the regional anatomy of the brain and provide an introduction to the cellular function of neurons, synapses and neurotransmitters. Commonly used drugs that alter brain function can be understood through a knowledge of neurotransmitters. Along similar lines, common diseases that illustrate normal brain function will be discussed. Experimental animal studies that reveal how the brain works will be reviewed. Throughout the seminar we will discuss clinical cases from Dr. Byrne's experience that illustrate brain function; in addition, articles from the scientific literature will be discussed at each class.
The colon is a site of microbial fermentation, the relative importance of this is species dependent. The colon can be divided into the following portions; Ascending, transverse and descending.
This activity is designed to compare and contrast the anatomy of the leg bones of a bird vs. a human.
- Material Type:
- Science Education Resource Center (SERC) at Carleton College
- Provider Set:
- Pedagogy in Action
- Valerie Jeffery
- Date Added:
Different hormones, neurotransmitters and reflexes are involved in the complicated process of feeding in animals. Secretions and motility of the gastrointestinal tract are stimulated and carefully regulated by numerous factors, including environmental stimuli and the presence of food in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract from the oral cavity right through to the intestines. When a harmful substance is ingested the body acts to eliminate it in different ways to prevent the animal becoming ill, for example, through vomiting and diarrhoea. If one or more of the pathways in controlling feeding is damaged or inhibited, then problems such as obesity occurs.
Corpus Luteum is latin for "yellow body". The corpus luteum is the structure formed during luteinisation of the follicle after ovulation. The corpus luteum is, however, actually only yellow in the cow and in all other domestic species it is red. The yellow colouration of the corpus luteum is due to the pigment, lutein.
Luteinisation occurs after ovulation and the collapse of the follicle. The number of corpora lutea formed in the ovary at any one time is directly proportional to the number of oocytes ovulated. Therefore many corpora lutea will be visible on the ovary of polytocous animals. During Luteinisation there is an increase in both the size and weight due to hyperplasia (increase in cell number) and hypertrophy (increase in cell size) within the developing corpus luteum.
Cranial nerves are those nerves which arise from the brain and brain stem rather than the spinal cord. Nerves arising from the spinal cord are the peripheral nerves. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves and these pairs of nerves passage through foramina in the skull, either individually or in groups. Cranial nerves are traditionally referred to by Roman numerals and these numerals begin cranially and run caudally.
Deglutition is the process of swallowing. Food is passed from the oral pharynx into the oesophageal/laryngeal pharynx whilst the epiglottis closes across the entrance of the trachea. It is an involuntary reflex preventing food from passing into the trachea and thus preventing choking and respiratory pneumonia.
" This course provides an exciting, eye-opening, and thoroughly useful inquiry into what it takes to live an extraordinary life, on your own terms. The instructors address what it takes to succeed, to be proud of your life, and to be happy in it. Participants tackle career satisfaction, money, body, vices, and relationship to themselves and others. They learn how to address issues in their lives, how to live life, and how to learn from it. This course is offered during the Independent Activities Period (IAP), which is a special 4-week term at MIT that runs from the first week of January until the end of the month. This not-for-credit course is sponsored by the Department of Science, Technology, and Society. A similar, semester-long version of this course is taught in the Sloan Fellows Program. A semester-long extension of the IAP course is also taught to the population at large of MIT (please see PE.550, Spring). Acknowledgment The instructors would like to thank Prof. David Mindell for his sponsorship of this course, his intention for its continued expansion, and his commitment to the well-being of MIT students."
Embryo, when applied to mammals, is the term given to the developing organism from fertilisation to birth. Developmental biology, or embryology, is the study of the embryo as it transforms from a unicellular zygote to a multicellular, mulitsystemed organism which in some cases is ready to function autonomously at birth. Developmental biology is of interest to vets in understanding why organs and systems are the way they are, but also in understanding genetic diseases and applying cell based therapies to treat loss or damage to tissues.
The Diaphragm is a dome-shaped musculotendinous sheet separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities. It is convex on its cranial surface. In the neutral position between full inspiration and full expiration, the most cranial part of the diaphragm is in line with the 6th rib.
Gases or liquids can be unevenly distributed between two areas. If one area has a higher concentration than the other then the differance between these two areas is termed the concentration gradient. The equality is then corrected by the movement of the molecules down this so called gradient from the region of high concentration to that of low. This process is passive as the molecules do not have to be forced to do this and it is reffered to as diffusion.
The duodenum is the proximal part of the small intestine and extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the jejunum. It has descending and ascending portions and both portions have digestive and absorptive functions.
Elephant anatomy is very much comparable to the horse and rabbit. Microbes are present in the hindgut that produce Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs). VFAs make a substantial contribution to the elephant's total energy requirements. Food has a relatively fast transit time and as a result, elephants have a low digestive efficiency (44% as opposed to 60% in horses). A fast transit time is achieved by a short GIT, reduced caecum and increased GIT diameter. Their digestive strategy is to pass as large a quantity of low quality food through their digestive tract within a short period of time.
There are various hormones that influence the structure of the skin. These influences may be made apparent by the repeated long-term administration of various glucocorticoids or their analogues. Endogenous imbalances are generally seen in adult mature animals although congenital forms have been seen, especially with hypothyroidism. The hormones implicated as important for maintaining skin structure are thyroxine, cortisol and estradiol. Deficiencies or excessive production may result from abberations in the function of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis, the adrenal gland, thyroid gland or the gonads.
Comprised of a group of duct-less glands with limited or no anatomical contact with each other, the endocrine system integrates and controls metabolic activity through the secretion of hormones into the vascular system. These hormones may have their effects on tissues and organs far from where they were produced.
This course is intended to provide students with the fundamentals of fencing, including footwork, bladework, bouting and refereeing. It will allow students to develop the ability to analyze a fencing bout, and promotes creativity in applying acquired skills in a fencing bout.
Prior to birth the foetus is not capable of respiratory function and thus relies on the maternal circulation to carry out gas, nutrient and waste exchange. The foetal and maternal blood never mix, instead they interface at the placenta. Consequently the liver and the lungs are non-functional, and a series of shunts exist in the foetal circulation so that these organs are almost completely by-passed.
The forebrain (proencephalon) is the largest part of the brain, most of which is cerebrum. Other important structures found in the forebrain include the thalamus , the hypothalamus and the limbic system. The cerebrum is divided into two cerebral hemispheres connected by a mass of white matter known as the corpus callosum.
" We are now at an unprecedented point in the field of neuroscience: We can watch the human brain in action as it sees, thinks, decides, reads, and remembers. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the only method that enables us to monitor local neural activity in the normal human brain in a noninvasive fashion and with good spatial resolution. A large number of far-reaching and fundamental questions about the human mind and brain can now be answered using straightforward applications of this technology. This is particularly true in the area of high-level vision, the study of how we interpret and use visual information including object recognition, mental imagery, visual attention, perceptual awareness, visually guided action, and visual memory. The goals of this course are to help students become savvy and critical readers of the current neuroimaging literature, to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique, and to design their own cutting-edge, theoretically motivated studies. Students will read, present to the class, and critique recently published neuroimaging articles, as well as write detailed proposals for experiments of their own. Lectures will cover the theoretical background on some of the major areas in high-level vision, as well as an overview of what fMRI has taught us and can in future teach us about each of these topics. Lectures and discussions will also cover fMRI methods and experimental design. A prior course in statistics and at least one course in perception or cognition are required."
" This team-taught multidisciplinary course provides information relevant to the conduct and interpretation of human brain mapping studies. It begins with in-depth coverage of the physics of image formation, mechanisms of image contrast, and the physiological basis for image signals. Parenchymal and cerebrovascular neuroanatomy and application of sophisticated structural analysis algorithms for segmentation and registration of functional data are discussed. Additional topics include: fMRI experimental design including block design, event related and exploratory data analysis methods, and building and applying statistical models for fMRI data; and human subject issues including informed consent, institutional review board requirements and safety in the high field environment. Additional Faculty Div Bolar Dr. Bradford Dickerson Dr. John Gabrieli Dr. Doug Greve Dr. Karl Helmer Dr. Dara Manoach Dr. Jason Mitchell Dr. Christopher Moore Dr. Vitaly Napadow Dr. Jon Polimeni Dr. Sonia Pujol Dr. Bruce Rosen Dr. Mert Sabuncu Dr. David Salat Dr. Robert Savoy Dr. David Somers Dr. A. Gregory Sorensen Dr. Christina Triantafyllou Dr. Wim Vanduffel Dr. Mark Vangel Dr. Lawrence Wald Dr. Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli Dr. Anastasia Yendiki "
The University of Southern Queensland (USQ) is committed to advancing the use of open textbooks in higher education. This textbook is a tool to support first year anatomy and physiology courses taught in Australia, aiming to provide students with an increased access to free, high-quality learning materials.
The material in this textbook is largely based on OpenStax’s Anatomy & Physiology textbook, however, has been modified for Australian course curriculum.
Table of Contents
I. Levels of Organisation, Homeostasis and Nomenclature
II. Cells and Reproduction
III. Tissues, Organs, Systems
IV. Integumentary System
VI. Cardiovascular System
VII. Lymphatic System and Immunity
VIII. Respiratory System
IX. Muscle System
X. Skeletal System
XI. Musculoskeletal System
XII. Digestive System
XIII. Nervous System
XIV. Endocrine System
XV. Reproductive System
XVI. Pregnancy and Human Development
XVII. Urinary System
The gall bladder stores bile produced in the liver. Bile is important in the digestion of lipids. The gall bladder forms as an outgrowth of the bile duct, as a secondary hollow at the posterior edge of the original hepatic rudiment. The cystic duct joins the common bile duct which enters the duodenum at the major duodenal papillae (with the pancreatic duct) on the dorsal surface of the duodenum.
The air in the alveoli is renewed regularly, thanks to the ventilation process. Gas exchange in the lungs takes place between the blood in the capillary network surrounding the alveoli, and the air in the alveoli itself.