Open textbook in statics for engineering undergraduates. Covers particles and rigid bodies (extended bodies), structures (trusses), and simple machines. Includes text, videos, images, and worked examples (written and video).
This course will focus for a large part on MOSFET and CMOS, but also on heterojunction BJT, and photonic devices.First non-ideal characteristics of MOSFETs will be discussed, like channel-length modulation and short-channel effects. We will also pay attention to threshold voltage modification by varying the dopant concentration. Further, MOS scaling will be discussed. A combination of an n-channel and p-channel MOSFET is used for CMOS devices that form the basis for current digital technology. The operation of a CMOS inverter will be explained. We will explain in more detail how the transfer characteristics relate to the CMOS design.
This course is about the electronic properties of materials and contains lectures about scattering, transport in metals, phonons and superconductivity.
This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best of them in the domain of everyday life.
Table of Contents
1 Why should we care about motion?
2 From motion measurement to continuity
3 How to describe motion - kinematics
4 From objects and images to conservation
5 From the rotation of the Earth to the relativity of motion
6 Motion due to gravitation
7 Classical mechanics and the predictability of motion
8 Measuring change with action
9 Motion and symmetry
10 Simple motions of extended bodies – oscillations and waves
11 Do extended bodies exist? – Limits of continuity
12 Fluids and their motion
13 On heat and motion reversal invariance
14 Self-organization and chaos - the simplicity of complexity
15 From the limitations of physics to the limits of motion
This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the adventures one encounters when exploring everything electric. The story ranges from the weighing of electric current to the use of magnetic fields to heal bone fractures and up to the understanding of the human brain.
In order to be simple, the text focuses on concepts, while keeping mathematics to the necessary minimum. Understanding the concepts of physics is given precedence over using formulae in calculations. The whole text is within the reach of an undergraduate.
Table of Contents
1 Liquid Electricity, Invisible Fields And Maximum Speed
2 The Description Of Electromagnetic Field Evolution
3 What Is Light
4 Images And The Eye – Optics
5 Electromagnetic Effects
6 Summary And Limits Of Classical Electrodynamics
7 The Story Of The Brain
8 Language And Concepts
9 Observations, Lies And Patterns Of Nature
10 Classical Physics In A Nutshell
This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and empty space move leads to many adven- tures. This volume presents the best of them in the domains of relativity and cosmology. In the study of motion – physics – special and general relativity form two important building blocks.
Special relativity is the exploration of the energy speed limit c. General relativity is the exploration of the force limit c4/4G. The text shows that in both domains, all equations follow from these two limit values. This simple, intuitive and unusual way of learning relativity should reward the curiosity of every reader – whether student or professional.
The present volume is the second of a six-volume overview of physics that arose from a threefold aim that I have pursued since 1990: to present motion in a way that is simple, up to date and captivating.
Table of Contents
1 Maximum Speed, Observers At Rest And Motion Of Light
2 Relativistic Mechanics
3 Special Relativity In Four Sentences
4 Simple General Relativity: Gravitation, Maximum Speed And Maximum Force
5 How Maximum Speed Changes Space, Time And Gravity
6 Open Orbits, Bent Light And Wobbling Vacuum
7 From Curvature To Motion
8 Why Can We See The Stars? – Motion In The Universe
9 Black Holes – Falling Forever
10 Does Space Differ From Time?
11 General Relativity In A Nutshell – A Summary For The Layman
This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and space move? The answer leads to many adventures; this volume presents those due to the discovery that there is a smallest change value in nature. This smallest change value, the quantum of action, leads to what is called quantum physics. In the structure of modern physics, quantum physics covers three points; this volume covers the introduction to the point in the lower right: the foundations of quantum theory.
Table of Contents
1 Minimum Action – Quantum Theory For Poets
2 Light – The Strange Consequences Of The Quantum Of Action
3 Motion Of Matter – Beyond Classical Physics
4 The Quantum Description Of Matter And Its Motion
5 Permutation Of Particles – Are Particles Like Gloves?
6 Rotations And Statistics – Visualizing Spin
7 Superpositions And Probabilities – Quantum Theory Without Ideology
8 Colours And Other Interactions Between Light And Matter
9 Quantum Physics In A Nutshell
This book is written for anybody who is intensely curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and empty space move? The answer leads to many adventures, and this book presents one of the best of them: the search for a precise, unified and final description of all motion.
Table of Contents
1 From Millennium Physics To Unification
2 Physics In Limit Statements
3 General Relativity Versus Quantum Theory
4 Does Matter Differ From Vacuum?
5 What Is The Difference Between The Universe And Nothing?
6 The Shape Of Points – Extension In Nature
7 The Basis Of The Strand Model
8 Quantum Theory Of Matter Deduced From Strands
9 Gauge Interactions Deduced From Strands
10 General Relativity Deduced From Strands
11 The Particle Spectrum Deduced From Strands
12 Particle Properties Deduced From Strands
13 Experimental Predictions Of The Strand Model
14 The Top Of Motion Mountain
This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how bodies, images and empty space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best adventures about the motion inside people, inside animals, and inside any other type of matter – from the largest stars to the smallest nuclei.
Table of Contents
1 Motion For Enjoying Life
2 Changing The World With Quantum Effects
3 Quantum Electrodynamics – The Origin Of Virtual Reality
4 Quantum Mechanics With Gravitation – First Steps
5 The Structure Of The Nucleus – The Densest Clouds
6 The Sun, The Stars And The Birth Of Matter
7 The Strong Interaction – Inside Nuclei And Nucleons
8 The Weak Nuclear Interaction And The Handedness Of Nature
9 The Standard Model Of Particle Physics – As Seen On Television
10 Dreams Of Unification
11 Bacteria, Flies And Knots
12 Quantum Physics In A Nutshell – Again
Boundary layers as rational approximations to the solutions of exact equations of fluid motion. Physical parameters influencing laminar and turbulent aerodynamic flows and transition. Effects of compressibility, heat conduction, and frame rotation. Influence of boundary layers on outer potential flow and associated stall and drag mechanisms. Numerical solution techniques and exercises. The major focus of 16.13 is on boundary layers, and boundary layer theory subject to various flow assumptions, such as compressibility, turbulence, dimensionality, and heat transfer. Parameters influencing aerodynamic flows and transition and influence of boundary layers on outer potential flow are presented, along with associated stall and drag mechanisms. Numerical solution techniques and exercises are included.
These courses, produced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of aerospace engineering, highlighted through lectures on aeronautics, astronautics, and design. MIT˘ďď_s Aerospace and Aeronautics curriculum is divided into three parts: Aerospace information engineering, Aerospace systems engineering, and Aerospace vehicles engineering. Visitors to this site will find undergraduate and graduate courses to fit all three of these areas, from Exploring Sea, Space, & Earth: Fundamentals of Engineering Design to Bio-Inspired Structures
This book was developed at Simon Fraser University for an upper-level physics course. Along with a careful exposition of electricity and magnetism, it devotes a chapter to ferromagnets. According to the course description, the topics covered were “electromagnetics, magnetostatics, waves, transmission lines, wave guides, antennas, and radiating systems.”
Table of Contents
1 Maxwell's Equations
2 Electrostatic Field (I)
3 Electrostatic Field (II)
4 The Magnetostatic Field (I)
5 The Magnetostatic Field (II)
7 Time Dependent Electromagnetic Fields
8 E.M. Fields and Energy Flow
9 Plane Waves (I)
10 Plane Waves (II)
11 Transmission Lines
Laszlo Tisza was Professor of Physics Emeritus at MIT, where he began teaching in 1941. This online publication is a reproduction the original lecture notes for the course "Applied Geometric Algebra" taught by Professor Tisza in the Spring of 1976. Over the last 100 years, the mathematical tools employed by physicists have expanded considerably, from differential calculus, vector algebra and geometry, to advanced linear algebra, tensors, Hilbert space, spinors, Group theory and many others. These sophisticated tools provide powerful machinery for describing the physical world, however, their physical interpretation is often not intuitive. These course notes represent Prof. Tisza's attempt at bringing conceptual clarity and unity to the application and interpretation of these advanced mathematical tools. In particular, there is an emphasis on the unifying role that Group theory plays in classical, relativistic, and quantum physics. Prof. Tisza revisits many elementary problems with an advanced treatment in order to help develop the geometrical intuition for the algebraic machinery that may carry over to more advanced problems. The lecture notes came to MIT OpenCourseWare by way of Samuel Gasster, '77 (Course 18), who had taken the course and kept a copy of the lecture notes for his own reference. He dedicated dozens of hours of his own time to convert the typewritten notes into LaTeX files and then publication-ready PDFs. You can read about his motivation for wanting to see these notes published in his Preface below. Professor Tisza kindly gave his permission to make these notes available on MIT OpenCourseWare.
Fundamentals of nuclear physics for engineering students. Basic properties of the nucleus and nuclear radiations. Elementary quantum mechanical calculations of bound-state energies and barrier transmission probability. Binding energy and nuclear stability. Interactions of charged particles, neutrons, and gamma rays with matter. Radioactive decays. Energetics and general cross-section behavior in nuclear reactions.
Galactic dynamics: potential theory, orbits, collisionless Boltzmann equation, etc. Galaxy interactions. Groups and clusters; dark matter. Intergalactic medium; x-ray clusters. Active galactic nuclei: unified models, black hole accretion, radio and optical jets, etc. Homogeneity and isotropy, redshift, galaxy distance ladder. Newtonian cosmology. Roberston-Walker models and cosmography. Early universe, primordial nucleosynthesis, recombination. Cosmic microwave background radiation. Large-scale structure, galaxy formation.
Size and time scales. Historical astronomy. Astronomical instrumentation. Stars: spectra and classification. Stellar structure equations and survey of stellar evolution. Stellar oscillations. Degenerate and collapsed stars; radio pulsars. Interacting binary systems; accretion disks, x-ray sources. Gravitational lenses; dark matter. Interstellar medium: HII regions, supernova remnants, molecular clouds, dust; radiative transfer; Jeans' mass; star formation. High-energy astrophysics: Compton scattering, bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation, cosmic rays. Galactic stellar distributions and populations; Oort constants; Oort limit; and globular clusters.
This course provides an introduction to the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere, including experience with computer codes. It is intended for undergraduates and first year graduate students.
Introduction to the physics of atmospheric radiation and remote sensing including use of computer codes. Radiative transfer equation including emission and scattering, spectroscopy, Mie theory, and numerical solutions. Solution of inverse problems in remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and composition.
Atomic physics may loosely be defined as the scientific study of the structure of the atom, its energy states, and its interactions with other particles and fields. Learning Atomic Physics is important not only for understanding the physics of the atom but also the technological applications thereof. For example, the fact that each element has its own characteristic “fingerprint” spectrum has contributed significantly to advances in material science and also in cosmology.
This is the second of a two-semester subject sequence beginning with Atomic and Optical Physics I (8.421) that provides the foundations for contemporary research in selected areas of atomic and optical physics. Topics covered include non-classical states of light–squeezed states; multi-photon processes, Raman scattering; coherence–level crossings, quantum beats, double resonance, superradiance; trapping and cooling-light forces, laser cooling, atom optics, spectroscopy of trapped atoms and ions; atomic interactions–classical collisions, quantum scattering theory, ultracold collisions; and experimental methods.