Ribosomes and Protein Synthesis

Protein Folding, Modification, and Targeting

During and after translation, individual amino acids may be chemically modified, signal sequences appended, and the new protein “folded” into a distinct three-dimensional structure as a result of intramolecular interactions. A signal sequence is a short sequence at the amino end of a protein that directs it to a specific cellular compartment. These sequences can be thought of as the protein’s “train ticket” to its ultimate destination, and are recognized by signal-recognition proteins that act as conductors. For instance, a specific signal sequence terminus will direct a protein to the mitochondria or chloroplasts (in plants). Once the protein reaches its cellular destination, the signal sequence is usually clipped off.

Many proteins fold spontaneously, but some proteins require helper molecules, called chaperones, to prevent them from aggregating during the complicated process of folding. Even if a protein is properly specified by its corresponding mRNA, it could take on a completely dysfunctional shape if abnormal temperature or pH conditions prevent it from folding correctly.