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Avoiding Genomic Instability: DNA Replication, the Cell Cycle, and Cancer, Fall 2006
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In this class we will learn about how the process of DNA replication is regulated throughout the cell cycle and what happens when DNA replication goes awry. How does the cell know when and where to begin replicating its DNA? How does a cell prevent its DNA from being replicated more than once? How does damaged DNA cause the cell to arrest DNA replication until that damage has been repaired? And how is the duplication of the genome coordinated with other essential processes? We will examine both classical and current papers from the scientific literature to provide answers to these questions and to gain insights into how biologists have approached such problems. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. OpenCourseWare
Author:
Randell, John
Date Added:
01/01/2006
Biochemistry
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CC BY
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Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and compounds, such as cellular makeup, that bring about life in organisms. This course will look at how these formed biomolecules interact and produce many of life's necessary processes. Also it will look at the most commonly used techniques in biochemistry research. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: recognize and describe the structure of the following basic biomolecules: nucleic acids, amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates; diagram how these basic biomolecules are used as building blocks for more complex biomolecules; differentiate between reactions that create biomolecules; describe how these biomolecules are used in specific cellular pathways and processes; analyze how feedback from one pathway influences other pathways; explain how energy is utilized by a cell; indicate how biomolecules and pathways are regulated; describe how enzymes play a key role in catalysis; assess which biochemical technique should be used to study a given biochemical problem. (Biology 401; See also: Chemistry 109)

Subject:
Biology
Chemistry
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
04/29/2019
Biology 2e
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CC BY
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Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
03/07/2018
Biology 2e, Genetics, Genes and Proteins, Eukaryotic Transcription
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CC BY
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By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:

List the steps in eukaryotic transcription
Discuss the role of RNA polymerases in transcription
Compare and contrast the three RNA polymerases
Explain the significance of transcription factors

Subject:
Applied Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
09/20/2018
Biology 2e, Preface, Preface
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CC BY
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Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Subject:
Applied Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
09/20/2018
Biotechnology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This course will introduce the student to the major concepts of biotechnology. The student will discuss genetic engineering of plants and animals and the current major medical, environmental, and agricultural applications of each. There are also a variety of topics that this course will cover after ranging from nanobiotechnology to environmental biotechnology. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: identify and describe the fields of biotechnology; compare and contrast forward and reverse genetics and the way they influence biodiversity; compare and contrast systemic studies of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome; explain how genome projects are performed, and discuss the completion and the information processing in these projects; describe and explain the principles of existing gene therapies; design strategies that support genetic counseling; explain and analyze DNA fingerprints, and compare DNA fingerprints to non-DNA biometrics; describe and compare bioremediation technologies in air, water, and soil; design strategies for generating genetically modified organisms, and discuss ethical concerns; discuss emerging fields in biotechnology. (Biology 403)

Subject:
Engineering
Environmental Science
Biology
Genetics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
04/29/2019
Cancer Biology
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CC BY
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This course will cover the origins of cancer and the genetic and cellular basis for cancer. It will examine the factors that have been implicated in triggering cancers; the intercellular interactions involved in cancer proliferation; current treatments for cancer and how these are designed; and future research and treatment directions for cancer therapy. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain how the perception of cancer and theories of its causes have changed throughout history because of important discoveries made by scientists, researchers, and physicians; summarize the importance of understanding cell biology in the study of cancer, its causes, it progression, and its treatment; outline the transcription and translation processes used to convert DNA into proteins and what changes occur that convert proto-oncogenes into oncogenes and lead to unchecked cell growth and cancer; compare and contrast the mechanisms by which activation of oncogenes, loss of tumor suppressors, loss of cell cycle checkpoints, and development of faulty DNA repair lead to cancer; describe the various cancer prevention mechanisms including risk assessment, screening, and lifestyle and environmental modification; list the past, current, and future cancer treatments and the mechanism by which these target cancer causing cells. (Biology 404)

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
04/29/2019
Cell Biology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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This course will present the student with a detailed overview of a cell's main components and functions. The course is roughly organized into four major areas: the cell membrane, cell nucleus, cell cycle, and cell interior. The student will approach most of these topics straightforwardly, from a molecular and structural point of view. Upon completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain what a eukaryotic cell is, identify the components of the cell, and describe how a cell functions; explain how cell membranes are formed; identify the general mechanisms of transport across cell membranes; list the different ways in which cells communicate with one another--specifically, via signaling pathways; define what the extracellular matrix is composed of in different cells and how the extracellular matrix is involved in forming structures in specific tissues; list the components of the cell's cytoskeleton and explain how the cytoskeleton is formed and how it directs cell movements; explain the fundamentals of gene expression and describe how gene expression is regulated at the protein level; define and explain the major cellular events involved in mitosis and cytokinesis; identify the major cellular events that occur during meiosis; describe the eukaryotic cell cycle and identify the events that need to occur during each phase of the cell cycle; identify all of the major organelles in eukaryotic cells and their respective major functions. (Biology 301)

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
04/29/2019
Experimental Microbial Genetics, Fall 2008
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CC BY-NC-SA
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" In this class, students engage in independent research projects to probe various aspects of the physiology of the bacteriumĺĘPseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, an opportunistic pathogen isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. Students use molecular genetics to examine survival in stationary phase, antibiotic resistance, phase variation, toxin production, and secondary metabolite production. Projects aim to discover the molecular basis for these processes using both classical and cutting-edge techniques. These include plasmid manipulation, genetic complementation, mutagenesis, PCR, DNA sequencing, enzyme assays, and gene expression studies. Instruction and practice in written and oral communication are also emphasized. WARNING NOTICE The experiments described in these materials are potentially hazardous and require a high level of safety training, special facilities and equipment, and supervision by appropriate individuals. You bear the sole responsibility, liability, and risk for the implementation of such safety procedures and measures. MIT shall have no responsibility, liability, or risk for the content or implementation of any of the material presented. Legal Notice "

Subject:
Biology
Genetics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. OpenCourseWare
Author:
Croal, Laura
Laub, Michael
Melvold, Janis
Newman, Dianne
Date Added:
01/01/2008
Freshman Seminar: Structural Basis of Genetic Material: Nucleic Acids, Fall 2005
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CC BY-NC-SA
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Since the discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 by Watson and Crick, the information on detailed molecular structures of DNA and RNA, namely, the foundation of genetic material, has expanded rapidly. This discovery is the beginning of the "Big Bang" of molecular biology and biotechnology. In this seminar, students discuss, from a historical perspective and current developments, the importance of pursuing the detailed structural basis of genetic materials.

Subject:
Biology
Genetics
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. OpenCourseWare
Author:
Zhang, Shuguang
Date Added:
01/01/2005
Learning and Memory: Activity-Controlled Gene Expression in the Nervous System, Fall 2009
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"The mammalian brain easily outperforms any computer. It adapts and changes constantly. Most importantly, the brain enables us to continuously learn and remember. What are the molecular mechanisms that lead to learning and memory? What are the cellular roles that activity-regulated gene products play to implement changes in the brain?How do nerve cells, their connections (synapses), and brain circuits change over time to store information? We will discuss the molecular mechanisms of neuronal plasticity at the synaptic, cellular and circuit levels, especiallysynapse formation,synaptic growth and stabilization,synaptic transmission,axonal and dendritic outgrowth, andcircuit formationWe will learn about the roles of some activity-regulated genes as well as the tools and techniques employed in modern neuroscience. Our goal will be to understand molecular mechanisms the brain employs to accomplish learning and memory.This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching."

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. OpenCourseWare
Author:
Loebrich, Sven
Date Added:
01/01/2009
Molecular Biology
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CC BY
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After a historical introduction to molecular biology, this course describes the basic types of DNA and RNA structure and the molecular interactions that shape them. It describes how DNA is packaged within the cellular nucleus as chromosomes. It also describes the core processes of molecular biology: replication of DNA, transcription of DNA into messenger RNA, and translation of messenger RNA into a protein. These are followed by modifications of these basic processes: regulation of gene expression, DNA mutation and repair, and DNA recombination and transposition. Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: discuss the experimental findings that lead to the discovery of inheritance laws; discuss the experimental findings that lead to the identification of DNA as the hereditary material; compare and contrast the structure and function of mRNA, rRNA, tRNA, and DNA; identify the characteristics of catalyzed reactions; compare and contrast enzyme and ribozyme catalyzed reactions; discuss the structure of the chromosome and the consequence of histone modifications in eukaryotes; discuss the stages of transcription, differential splicing, and RNA turnover; predict the translation product of an mRNA using the genetic code; compare and contrast transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; identify codon bias and variations of the standard genetic code; compare and contrast the regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression; predict the activation of an operon and tissue specific gene expression based on the availability of regulators; compare and contrast mutations based on their effect on the gene product; discuss DNA repair mechanisms; discuss DNA recombination, transposition, and the consequence of exon shuffling; design custom-made recombinant DNA using PCR, restriction enzymes, and site-directed mutagenesis; compare and contrast the uses of model organisms; discuss the uses of model organisms in specific molecular biology applications. (Biology 311)

Subject:
Biology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
04/29/2019