Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Describe the properties of water that are critical to maintaining life
Explain why water is an excellent solvent
Provide examples of water’s cohesive and adhesive properties
Discuss the role of acids, bases, and buffers in homeostasis
Relation of purpose of data to data requirements. Relation of data to costs.
Accuracy requirements of measurements and error propagation:
Related to a problem the required accuracy of measurements and the consequences for accuracy in the final result are discussed. Different types of errors are handled. Propagation of errors; for dependent and independent measurements, from mathematical relations and regression is demonstrated. Recapitulated is the theory of regression and correlation.
Interpretation of measurements, data completion: By standard statistical methods screening of measured data is performed; double mass analysis, residual mass, simple rainfall-runoff modelling. Detection of trends; split record tests, Spearman rank tests. Methods to fill data gaps and do filtering on data series for noise reduction.
Methods of hydrological measurements and measuring equipment: To determine quantitatively the most important elements in the hydrological cycle an overview is presented of most common hydrological measurements, measuring equipment and indirect determination methods i.e. for precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, river discharge and groundwater tables. Use, purpose and measurement techniques for tracers in hydrology is discussed.
Advantages and disadvantages and specific condition/application of methods are discussed. Equipment is demonstrated and discussed.
Areal distributed observation: Areal interpolation techniques of point observations: inverse distance, Thiessen, contouring, Kriging. Comparison of interpolation techniques and estimation of errors. Correlation analysis of areal distributed observation of rainfall
Design of measuring networks: Based on correlation characteristics from point measurements (e.g. rainfall stations) and accuracy requirements the design of a network of stations is demonstrated.
Analysis, modeling, and design of heat and mass transfer processes with application to common technologies. Unsteady heat conduction in one or more dimensions, steady conduction in multidimensional configurations, numerical simulation; forced convection in laminar and turbulent flows; natural convection in internal and external configurations; phase change heat transfer; thermal radiation, black bodies, grey radiation networks, spectral and solar radiation; mass transfer at low rates, evaporation.
Benjamin Franklin is credited with saying, "Some people are weatherwise, but most are otherwise." Ol' Ben understood that weather can have a great effect on our everyday lives, and he knew the importance of having an understanding of what makes the atmosphere work (and not just knowing when it's safe to fly a kite). In Meteo 3, we will examine all aspects of the weather. You'll learn the fundamental processes that drive the atmosphere, along with some of the tools we use to measure those processes. You'll also learn about large-scale weather systems, severe convection, tropical weather, and climate change. As a result, you'll be a better consumer of weather information and forecasts. So... do you want to be weatherwise?
Lesson 1: A Meteorologist's Toolbox
Lesson 2: The Global Ledger of Heat Energy
Lesson 3: Global and Local Controllers of Temperature
Lesson 4: The Role of Water in Weather
Lesson 5: Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere
Lesson 6: Surface Patterns of Pressure and Wind
Lesson 7: Mid-Latitude Weather Systems
Lesson 8: The Role of Stability in Thunderstorm Formation
Lesson 9: Severe Weather
Lesson 10: The Human Impact on Weather and Climate
Lesson 11: Patterns of Wind, Water, and Weather in the Tropics
Lesson 12: Hurricanes
Lesson 13: Becoming a Savvy Weather Consumer
The course discusses several Geopgraphical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) tools relevant for analysis of (problems in and aspects of) water systems. Within the course, several applications are introduced. These applications include GIS tools to determine mapping of surface water systems (catchment delineation, reservoirs and canal systems). The RS tools include determination of evaporation and soil moisture patterns, and measurement of water levels in surface water systems. In exercises and lectures, different tools and applications are offered. For each application, assignments are given to allow students to acquire relevant skills. The course structure combines assignments and introductory lectures. Each week participants work on one assignment. These assignments are discussed in the next lecture and graded. Each week a new assignment is introduced, together with supporting materials (an article discussing the relevant application) and lectures (introducing theoretical issues). The study material of the course consists of a study guide, assignments, lecture material and articles. The final mark is the average of the grades of the individual assignments.