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Microbial Pathogenesis
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CC BY
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Learning Objectives in this unit:

Distinguish between signs and symptoms of disease
Explain the difference between a communicable disease and a noncommunicable disease
Compare different types of infectious diseases, including iatrogenic, nosocomial, and zoonotic diseases
Identify and describe the stages of an acute infectious disease in terms of number of pathogens present and severity of signs and symptoms
Summarize Koch’s postulates and molecular Koch’s postulates, respectively, and explain their significance and limitations
Explain the concept of pathogenicity (virulence) in terms of infectious and lethal dose
Distinguish between primary and opportunistic pathogens and identify specific examples of each
Summarize the stages of pathogenesis
Explain the roles of portals of entry and exit in the transmission of disease and identify specific examples of these portals
Explain how virulence factors contribute to signs and symptoms of infectious disease
Differentiate between endotoxins and exotoxins
Describe and differentiate between various types of exotoxins
Describe the mechanisms viruses use for adhesion and antigenic variation
Describe virulence factors unique to fungi and parasites
Compare virulence factors of fungi and bacteria
Explain the difference between protozoan parasites and helminths
Describe how helminths evade the host immune system

Subject:
Microbiology
Natural Science
Material Type:
Unit of Study
Author:
OpenStax
Date Added:
09/10/2019
OpenStax Biology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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Biology is designed for multi-semester biology courses for science majors. It is grounded on an evolutionary basis and includes exciting features that highlight careers in the biological sciences and everyday applications of the concepts at hand. To meet the needs of today’s instructors and students, some content has been strategically condensed while maintaining the overall scope and coverage of traditional texts for this course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom. Biology also includes an innovative art program that incorporates critical thinking and clicker questions to help students understand—and apply—key concepts.

Subject:
Biology
Natural Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Author:
Julie Adams
Summer Allen
Date Added:
10/03/2018
Pathobiology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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The purpose of this course is to explore the subject of human disease, placing special emphasis on the cause of disease at the tissue level. The student will pay close attention to the underlying mechanisms that initiate and perpetuate the disease state. The student will begin this course with a basic review of molecules, cells, and tissues in the human body, then discuss the inflammatory reaction and the immune system. Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: explain how atoms combine to form larger molecules such as proteins and carbohydrates; compare and contrast inflammation, the innate (non-specific) immune response, and the adaptive immune response; define the term infectious disease, giving examples of causative agents and resulting disease states; differentiate between apoptosis and necrosis; describe how normal cells become immortalized to become cancer cells; compare and contrast diseases involving an overactive and underactive immune system, including SCID, HIV, allergies, and asthma as examples; explain how an autoimmune response leads to diseases such as Type 1 diabetes mellitus and lupus (SLE); explain how genetic diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, are passed from parents to offspring and the changes that occur to the cells involved; describe how changes in the skeletal system and skeletal muscle anatomy and physiology lead to the development of diseases such as osteoporosis and muscular dystrophy; identify the changes that occur in the circulatory system with atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction; outline the major changes that occur in renal diseases such as glomerulonephritis; diagram the levels of damage seen with first-, second-, and third-degree burns; write a list of cellular and tissue changes seen with various diseases, including cirrhosis of the liver, thyroid disorders like hypothyroidism, nervous system diseases like Alzheimer's, and in sexually transmitted diseases like syphilis; identify major changes that occur to a body postmortem and how the autopsy is used to recognize normal and abnormal changes. (Biology 402)

Subject:
Biology
Natural Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
The Saylor Foundation
Date Added:
04/29/2019
Principle and Practice of Human Pathology, Spring 2003
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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Subject provides a comprehensive overview of human pathology with emphasis on mechanisms of disease and modern diagnostic technologies. Topics include: general mechanisms of disease (inflammation, infection, immune injury, host response to foreign materials, transplantation, genetic disorders and neoplasia); pathology of lipids, enzymes, and molecular transporters; pathology of major organ systems; and review of diagnostic tools from invasive surgical pathology to non-invasive techniques such as optical spectroscopy, functional imaging, and molecular markers of disease. The objectives of this subject are achieved by a set of integrated lectures and laboratories, as well as a student-driven term project leading to a formal presentation on a medical, socioeconomic, or technological issue in human pathology.

Subject:
Anatomy/Physiology
Biology
Natural Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. OpenCourseWare
Author:
Badizadegan, Kamran
Date Added:
01/01/2003
Psychology
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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0.0 stars

Psychology is designed to meet scope and sequence requirements for the single-semester introduction to psychology course. The book offers a comprehensive treatment of core concepts, grounded in both classic studies and current and emerging research. The text also includes coverage of the DSM-5 in examinations of psychological disorders. Psychology incorporates discussions that reflect the diversity within the discipline, as well as the diversity of cultures and communities across the globe.Senior Contributing AuthorsRose M. Spielman, Formerly of Quinnipiac UniversityContributing AuthorsKathryn Dumper, Bainbridge State CollegeWilliam Jenkins, Mercer UniversityArlene Lacombe, Saint Joseph's UniversityMarilyn Lovett, Livingstone CollegeMarion Perlmutter, University of Michigan

Subject:
Psychology
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
Rice University
Provider Set:
OpenStax College
Date Added:
02/14/2014
Psychology, Stress, Lifestyle, and Health, Stress and Illness
Unrestricted Use
CC BY
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By the end of this section, you will be able to:

Explain the nature of psychophysiological disorders
Describe the immune system and how stress impacts its functioning
Describe how stress and emotional factors can lead to the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular disorders, asthma, and tension headaches

Subject:
Social Science
Material Type:
Module
Date Added:
09/20/2018
Recognition of Microorganisms
Only Sharing Permitted
CC BY-NC-ND
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The innate immune system recognises components of pathogens which are intrinsically foreign (i.e. not present on normal mammalian cells), such as Lipolysaccharides, Peptidoglycans and D-isoform amino acids.

Subject:
Natural Science
Material Type:
Diagram/Illustration
Reading
Provider:
WikiVet
Provider Set:
Blood
Date Added:
12/27/2018
Under the Radar Screen: How Bugs Trick Our Immune Defenses, Spring 2007
Conditional Remix & Share Permitted
CC BY-NC-SA
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This course explores the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.

Subject:
Biology
Natural Science
Material Type:
Full Course
Provider:
M.I.T.
Provider Set:
M.I.T. OpenCourseWare
Author:
Grotenbreg, Gijsbert
Date Added:
01/01/2007