The anus is the terminal portion of the alimentary tract which communicates with the external environment. Two sphincters control it's aperture. It allows faeces and gas to leave the body. Defeacation is the process where faeces are expelled from the rectum through the anus.
After emerging from the heart, the aortic artery divides into the right and left dorsal branches. Each branch feeds into a set of arches which are unique to the embryo. Most higher vertebrates have have 6 pairs of aortic arches. In the mammal the 5th pair do not form. These arches evolve to form some of the structures of the mammalian circulation. The fate of each arch varies.
This 12 session course is designed for the beginning or novice archer and uses recurve indoor target bows and equipment. The purpose of the course is to introduce students to the basic techniques of indoor target archery emphasizing the care and use of equipment, range safety, stance and shooting techniques, scoring and competition.
Although the information on this page is based around the anatomy of the canine hindlimb, it is essentially the anatomy of the arteries in domestic species. Any major differences will be discussed on their respective pages
The Atlas of Comparative Anatomy began as a class project at SUNY Oneonta in 2017 because of the lack of a comprehensive freely-accessible photographic atlas. The majority of entries in this atlas were produced by students including dissection, photography, and identification. It is a work in progress, but we hope that students of anatomy find this a useful tool for studying anatomy outside of the lab.
The authors are interested in learning who adopts this tool for their course. If you do, please email Dr. Kristen Roosa at Kristen.Roosa@oneonta.edu.
PDF version available: https://dspace.sunyconnect.suny.edu/handle/1951/71276
The peripheral nervous system found in most domestic species can be segregated into three sub-systems; the sensory system, the somatic motor system and the autonomic system. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the internal environment of the body including factors such as body temperature, blood pressure and concentrations of many substances. The ANS is also responsible for mobilising the body's resources during stressful situations. The ANS controls gland cells, cardiac muscle cells and smooth muscle cells. Control of this nervous system is involuntary and regulation is via autonomic reflexes. The autonomic reflex arc system is very similar to that of the somatic motor system, i.e. there are sensory (afferent) nerve fibres, an information integration centre, motor (efferent) fibres and effector cells. Any levels of increased activity within the autonomic nervous system can result in both stimulation or inhibition of effector cells, although it is only the efferent part of the reflex arc that is actually considered autonomic.
The intestines occupy the caudal part of the body. They contact the reproductive organs and the gizzard. The small intestine is long and relatively uniform in shape and size. There is no demarcation between the jejunum and the ileum.
BIOL 242 – Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P) 242 is the second class in a two quarter sequence in which human anatomy and physiology are studied using a body systems approach with emphasis on the interrelationships between form and function at the gross and microscopic levels of organization. You can think of this course as “An Owner’s Guide to the Human Body”. My goal is to help you learn how your body works so that you can explain concepts to others and apply knowledge to novel situations (e.g. make informed decisions regarding your own health and those whom you care about). You’ll also learn how to evaluate scientific research that forms the basis of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology and gain an appreciation for what remains to be discovered. To accomplish these goals requires significant effort from both of us. Although you will need to commit information to memory, I will ask you to focus on learning for understanding and your assessments will reflect this emphasis.
ANP 242 topics include: nervous system structure and physiology; special senses; endocrine system, reproductive system; digestive system; metabolism; urinary system; fluid and electrolyte balance; and, unifying themes of homeostasis, health and disease.
You will also gain experience problem solving, interpreting data, communicating verbally and in writing with others, developing information literacy skills, using technology and exploring how your knowledge of anatomy and physiology can be applied to real world health challenges. This course is designed to build the core knowledge and skills needed to succeed in a world that demands flexibility and continuous learning and to prepare you for advanced study of anatomy, physiology and clinically-related subjects.
Lab 1: Overview & The Microscope
Lab 2: Cytology
Lab 3: Histology
Lab 4: The Integumentary System
Lab 5: The Axial Skeleton
Lab 6: The Appendicular Skeleton
Lab 7: Joints
Lab 8: The Axial Muscles
Lab 9: The Appendicular Muscles
Lab 10: Nervous Tissue
Lab 11: The Central Nervous System (Brain)
Lab 12: Cranial and Spinal Nerves
Lab 13: The Somatic Nervous System (Special Senses)
Lab 14: The Endocrine System
Lab 15: Blood
Lab 16: The Heart
Lab 17: Blood Vessels and Circulation
Lab 18: The Lymphatic System
Lab 19: The Respiratory System
Lab 20: The Digestive System
Lab 21: The Urinary System
Lab 22: The Reproductive System (Male)
Lab 23: The Reproductive System (Female)
Bile formation is an osmotic secretory process that is driven by the active concentration of bile salts in the bile canaliculi. Bile acids are produced from cholesterol and prior to being excreted from hepatocytes are bound to specific amino acids allowing them to exist as bile salts. One side of the bile salt molecule is negatively charged (hydrophilic) whilst the other is hydrophobic allowing bile salts to form micelles once a certain bile salt concentration has been reached.
Once sperm has entered the the oocyte, an ootid is formed. During early stages the ootid will contain male and female pronuclei along with the first and second polar bodies. Fusion of the male and female pronuclei will result in a single diploid nucleus or syngamy. Once syngamy has occurred, the zona pellucida then develops into an imprenetrable layer that prevents polyspermy and so polyploidy. Once the zona pellucida has developed, the ootid is now referred to as a zygote (diploid) and will begin undergoing mitotic divisions via a cleavage process that will begin to give rise to daughter cells called blastomeres. These cleavage divisions will begin to produce a 4-celled embryo and then an 8-celled embryo.
The Blood Brain Barrier refers to the mechanisms in place around the microvasculature of the brain to ensure optimal neural functioning. Endothelial cells are the structural basis of the blood brain barrier and are joined by tight cellular junctions formed by the transmembrane proteins the occludins and the claudins.
This page has links to many topics centered around blood pressure: blood pressure measurement, physiology, kidney control of blood pressure, renal blood pressure, and the renin angiotensin aldosterine system
Osteogenesis is the formation of bone. Bone forms from one of three lineages; the skull forms from the neural crest; the limb skeleton forms from the lateral plate mesoderm; and the axial skeleton forms from the paraxial mesoderm (sclerotome).
This course provides an outline of vertebrate functional neuroanatomy, aided by studies of comparative neuroanatomy and evolution, and by studies of brain development. Topics include early steps to a central nervous system, basic patterns of brain and spinal cord connections, regional development and differentiation, regeneration, motor and sensory pathways and structures, systems underlying motivations, innate action patterns, formation of habits, and various cognitive functions. In addition, lab techniques are reviewed and students perform brain dissections.
The trachea bifurcates at the levels of the 4th-6th intercostal space, approximately halfway between the thoracic inlet and the diaphragm. It divides into two principle bronchi, tubes which conduct air into the lungs, and they divide into two lobar bronchi for the left lung, and into four lobar bronchi for the right lung. These further divide into smaller bronchi and bronchioles within the lung tissue.
The Bursa of Fabricus is a primary lymphoid organ found in birds. The bursa was the first place that a certain subset of lymphocytes was observed and consequently they were named B lymphocytes (bursa of Fabricius or bursa equivalent organs). The bursa is involved in the differentiation of B lymphocytes.