Understanding Evolution

Section Summary

Evolution is the process of adaptation through mutation which allows more desirable characteristics to pass to the next generation. Over time, organisms evolve more characteristics that are beneficial to their survival. For living organisms to adapt and change to environmental pressures, genetic variation must be present. With genetic variation, individuals have differences in form and function that allow some to survive certain conditions better than others. These organisms pass their favorable traits to their offspring. Eventually, environments change, and what was once a desirable, advantageous trait may become an undesirable trait and organisms may further evolve. Evolution may be convergent with similar traits evolving in multiple species or divergent with diverse traits evolving in multiple species that came from a common ancestor. We can observe evidence of evolution by means of DNA code and the fossil record, and also by the existence of homologous and vestigial structures.