Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
List the characteristics of fungi
Describe the composition of the mycelium
Describe the mode of nutrition of fungi
Explain sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes, which are bacteria and archaea. Viruses, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. In short; microbiology refers to the study of life and organisms that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Microbiology is a broad term which includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology and other branches. Microbiology is researched actively, and the field is advancing continually. We have probably only studied about one percent of all of the microbe species on Earth. Although microbes were first observed over three hundred years ago, the field of microbiology can be said to be in its infancy relative to older biological disciplines such as zoology and botany.
This Module is a study of organisms that cannot be seen with the unaided eye unless with the help of a microscope. They are referred to as microorganisms. More commonly they are called microbes. These are bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. Although viruses are strictly not organisms, they too will be discussed under the same title for convenience. Mycology which is the study of fungi includes some groups like the mushrooms with macroscopic fruiting structures, which appear seasonally above the ground. The study of microbes is called microbiology. The module starts with the history of microbiology; the discovery of microbes and the development of sterile culture techniques, and goes on to explore the diversity of microbes, their major biological characteristics and economic importance. Examples of laboratory exercises meant to familiarise the students with microbiological techniques such as, media preparation, isolation, identification, culture maintenance, growth measurements, staining techniques and preservation are presented wherever applicable.