Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Describe prions and their basic properties
Define viroids and their targets of infection
Seminar covering topics of current interest in biology. Includes reading and analysis of research papers and student presentations. Contact Biology Education Office for topics.
Learning Objectives in this unit:
Distinguish between signs and symptoms of disease
Explain the difference between a communicable disease and a noncommunicable disease
Compare different types of infectious diseases, including iatrogenic, nosocomial, and zoonotic diseases
Identify and describe the stages of an acute infectious disease in terms of number of pathogens present and severity of signs and symptoms
Summarize Koch’s postulates and molecular Koch’s postulates, respectively, and explain their significance and limitations
Explain the concept of pathogenicity (virulence) in terms of infectious and lethal dose
Distinguish between primary and opportunistic pathogens and identify specific examples of each
Summarize the stages of pathogenesis
Explain the roles of portals of entry and exit in the transmission of disease and identify specific examples of these portals
Explain how virulence factors contribute to signs and symptoms of infectious disease
Differentiate between endotoxins and exotoxins
Describe and differentiate between various types of exotoxins
Describe the mechanisms viruses use for adhesion and antigenic variation
Describe virulence factors unique to fungi and parasites
Compare virulence factors of fungi and bacteria
Explain the difference between protozoan parasites and helminths
Describe how helminths evade the host immune system
This course explores the specific ways by which microbes defeat our immune system and the molecular mechanisms that are under attack (phagocytosis, the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, MHC I/II antigen presentation). Through our discussion and dissection of the primary research literature, we will explore aspects of host-pathogen interactions. We will particularly emphasize the experimental techniques used in the field and how to read and understand research data. Technological advances in the fight against microbes will also be discussed, with specific examples. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.
Infectious diseases represent a serious global public health problem. They have the potential to kill millions of people, whether they emerge naturally as outbreaks or pandemics, or deliberately through bioterrorism. Some examples of diseases caused by emerging pathogens are the Bubonic Plague, Toxoplasmosis, African Sleeping Sickness, and Chagas Disease. Each day, infectious disease scientists serve on the front lines protecting us from such threats. In this course students will learn how to design and critique experiments through the discussion of primary research articles that explore the molecular basis of disease caused by emerging pathogens. This course is one of many Advanced Undergraduate Seminars offered by the Biology Department at MIT. These seminars are tailored for students with an interest in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current biological research in a highly interactive setting. Many instructors of the Advanced Undergraduate Seminars are postdoctoral scientists with a strong interest in teaching.