Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. Biology includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts. The 2nd edition has been revised to incorporate clearer, more current, and more dynamic explanations, while maintaining the same organization as the first edition. Art and illustrations have been substantially improved, and the textbook features additional assessments and related resources.
By the end of this section, you will be able to do the following:
Define matter and elements
Describe the interrelationship between protons, neutrons, and electrons
Compare the ways in which electrons can be donated or shared between atoms
Explain the ways in which naturally occurring elements combine to create molecules, cells, tissues, organ systems, and organisms
Course Contents 1. Turning performance (three dimensional equations of motion, coordinate systems, Euler angles, transformation matrices)
2. Airfield performance (take-off and landing)
3. Unsteady climb and descent (including minimum time to climb problem)
4. Cruise flight and transport performance
5. Equations of motion with a wind gradient present
6. Equations of motion applied to various phases of space flight
7. Launch, Vertical flight, delta-V budget, burn out height, staging
8. Gravity perturbations to satellite orbits, J2 effect for low earth orbit satellites, J2,2 effect for Geostationary Earth Orbit sattelites leading to contribution in ï„V budget
9. Patched conics approach for interplanetary flight, gravity assist effect / options for change of excess velocity (2d, 3d), Launch, in orbit insertion.
Study Goals 1. Integrate fundamental disciplines (aero, power and propulsion, mechanics..) to describe the kinematics of aerospace vehicles satisfying real world constraints
2. Derive equations of motion for elementary flight and mission phases (climb, turn, cruise, take-off, launch, orbit)
3. Derive analytical expressions for optimal performance (steepest turn, Breguet Range, patched conics, J2, maneuvers )
4. Determine pros/cons of multi-stage launchers.
5. Assess sun lighting conditions on a satellite.
6. Determine the influence of wind (gradient) on aircraft motion and performance.
7. Develop the theory to describe an interplanetary trajectory as a succession of two-body problems, and apply this concept to real missions.
Chemical rocket propulsion systems for launch, orbital, and interplanetary flight. Modeling of solid, liquid-bipropellant, and hybrid rocket engines. Thermochemistry, prediction of specific impulse. Nozzle flows including real gas and kinetic effects. Structural constraints. Propellant feed systems, turbopumps. Combustion processes in solid, liquid, and hybrid rockets. Cooling; heat sink, ablative, and regenerative.